nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒02
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Directed Technical Change, Environmental Sustainability, and Population Growth By Peter K. Kruse-Andersen
  2. Polluting Emissions and GDP: Decoupling Evidence from Brazilian States By João Tovar Jalles
  3. Exploring in-depth joint pro-environmental behaviors: a multivariate ordered probit approach By Olivier Beaumais; Apolline Niérat
  4. Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations By Farjam, Mike; Nikolaychuk, Olexandr; Bravo, Giangiacomo

  1. By: Peter K. Kruse-Andersen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
    Abstract: Population growth has two potentially counteracting effects on pollution emissions:(i) more people implies more production and thereby more emissions, and (ii) more people implies a larger research capacity which might reduce the emission intensity of production, depending on the direction of research. This paper investigates how to achieve a given climate goal in the presence of these two effects. A growth model featuring both directed technical change and population growth is developed. The model allows for simultaneous research in polluting and non-polluting technologies. Both analytical and numerical results indicate that population growth is a burden on the environment, even when all research efforts are directed toward non-polluting technologies. Thus research subsidies alone cannot ensure environmental sustainability. Instead, the analysis shows that environmental sustainability requires pollution taxes and/or population control policies.
    Keywords: Directed technical change, endogenous growth, environmental policy, environmental sustainability, climate change, population growth
    JEL: J11 O30 O41 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2019–11–19
  2. By: João Tovar Jalles
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GDP in Brazil using both aggregate and state-level data. The trend or Kuznets elasticity is about 0.8 for Brazil, higher than that in advanced countries but below that of major emerging markets. The elasticity is somewhat higher for consumption-based emissions than for production-based emissions, providing evidence against the “pollution haven” hypothesis. Additional evidence comes from state-level data analysis where one can observe a great deal of heterogeneity but also some hope as far as decoupling is concerned. In addition to the trend relationship between emissions and output, we find that there does not seem to exist a cyclical relationship holding in Brazil at the aggregate level (despite having become more procyclical over time), but it does exist in a few states.
    Keywords: Green House Gas, Cycle, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Brazil, Regional analysis, Detrending, Filtering
    JEL: E32 O44 Q43 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2019–11
  3. By: Olivier Beaumais (LISA - Lieux, Identités, eSpaces, Activités - UPP - Université Pascal Paoli - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Apolline Niérat (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: As commitment levels to pro-environmental activities are usually coded as ordered categorical variables, we argue that the multivariate ordered probit model is an appropriate tool to account for the effect of common observable and unobservable variables on joint pro-environmental behaviors. However, exploring in-depth joint pro-environmental behaviors using the multivariate ordered probit model requires not only to assess whether some variables are found to be significant, but also to calculate joint probabilities, conditional probabilities and partial effects on these quantities. As an illustration, we explore the joint commitment levels of households to recycling of materials in France. We show that beyond the estimation of the multivariate ordered probit model, much can be learned from the calculation of the aforementioned quantities. (JEL C35, Q53)
    Keywords: Joint pro-environmental behavior,multivariate ordered probit model,waste recycling
    Date: 2019–11–13
  4. By: Farjam, Mike; Nikolaychuk, Olexandr; Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Abstract: So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relation between environmental attitudes and actual ``green'' actions, something known as attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. We tested the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior in low-cost situations while increasing contribution costs generally reduced their effect. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior and has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.
    Date: 2019–03–13

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