nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2019‒07‒22
two papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in Italy By Alessandro Palma; Inna Petrunyk; Daniela Vuri
  2. Environmental policy and firm selection in the open economy By Kreickemeier, Udo; Richter, Philipp M.

  1. By: Alessandro Palma (University of Naples Parthenope & CEIS University of Rome "Tor Vergata"); Inna Petrunyk (Leuphana University Lueneburg); Daniela Vuri (CEIS & DEF University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of fetal exposure to air pollution on health outcomes at birth in Italy in the 2000s combining information on mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information on PM10 concentrations from air quality monitors. The potential endogeneity deriving from differential pollution exposure is addressed by exploiting as-good-as-random variation in rainfall shocks as an instrumental variable for air pollution concentrations. Our results show that both average levels of PM10 and days above the hazard limit have detrimental effects on birth weight, duration of gestation as well as overall health status at birth. These effects are mainly driven by pollution exposure during the third trimester of pregnancy and further differ in size with respect to the maternal socio-economic status, suggesting that babies born to socially disadvantaged mothers are more vulnerable. Given the non negligible effects of pollution on birth outcomes, further policy efforts are needed to fully protect fetuses from the adverse effects of air pollution and to mitigate the environmental inequality of health at birth.
    Keywords: pollution, particulate matter, birth weight, pre-term birth, environmental policies.
    JEL: I18 J13 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2019–07–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rtv:ceisrp:464&r=all
  2. By: Kreickemeier, Udo; Richter, Philipp M.
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the effects of a unilateral change in an emissions tax in a model of international trade with heterogeneous firms. We find a positive effect of tighter environmental policy on average productivity in the reforming country through reallocation of labour towards exporting firms. Domestic aggregate emissions fall, due to both a scale and a technique effect, but we show that the reduction in emissions following the tax increase is smaller than in autarky. Moreover, general equilibrium effects through changes in the foreign wage rate lead to a reduction in foreign emissions and, hence, to negative emissions leakage in case of transboundary pollution.
    Keywords: Strategic Environmental Policy,Firm Location,Carbon Leakage,General Equilibrium,Trade and environment,Heterogeneous firms,Unilateral environmental policy,Emissions leakage
    JEL: F18 F12 F15 Q58
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:tudcep:0419&r=all

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