nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2016‒10‒09
six papers chosen by

  1. Why is Pollution from U.S. Manufacturing Declining? The Roles of Trade, Regulation, Productivity, and Preferences By Joseph S. Shapiro; Reed Walker
  2. On the transition from nonrenewable energy to renewable energy By Yacoub Bahini; Cuong Le Van
  3. Pushing the Tipping in International Environmental Agreements By Lorenzo Cerda Planas
  4. Equilibrium and first-best city with endogenous exposure to local air pollution from traffic By Mirjam Schindler; Geoffrey Caruso; Pierre M. Picard
  5. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes ? By Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline
  6. Climatic Factors as Determinants of International Migration: Redux By Michel Beine; Christopher R. Parsons

  1. By: Joseph S. Shapiro (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Reed Walker (University of California, Berkeley, IZA, & NBER)
    Abstract: Between 1990 and 2008, air pollution emissions from U.S. manufacturing fell by 60 percent despite a substantial increase in manufacturing output. We show that these emissions reductions are primarily driven by within-product changes in emissions intensity rather than changes in output or in the composition of products produced. We then develop and estimate a quantitative model linking trade with the environment to better understand the economic forces driving these changes. Our estimates suggest that the implicit pollution tax that manufacturers face doubled between 1990 and 2008. These changes in environmental regulation, rather than changes in productivity and trade, account for most of the emissions reductions.
    Keywords: Cap-and-trade, Market-based instruments, NOx Budget Program, Pollution, Productivity, Trade
    JEL: F18 F64 H23 Q56
    Date: 2015–01
  2. By: Yacoub Bahini (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cuong Le Van (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics, VCREME - VanXuan Center of Research in Economics, Management and Environment - VanXuan Center of Research in Economics, Management and Environment, IPAG - Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper we use the CMM model (Chakravorty et al., 2006) in discrete time and obtain more results concerning the exhaustion time of Non-Renewable Resource (NRE), the dynamic regimes of energy prices, of the stocks of pollution. We show that NRE is exhausted in finite time and is directly influenced by the initial stock of NRE and the costs of NRE and RE. Higher is the initial stock of NRE, far is the time of exhaustion of NRE. Higher is the cost of NRE (resp. the difference of unit costs between RE and NRE), far is the time of exhaustion of NRE. Furthermore, we show that the abatement intervenes, when necessary, not more than two periods. We also show that, when the unit extraction cost of RE is not very high, the stocks of emissions will never be binding if and only if, the initial stock of NRE is less than a critical value.
    Keywords: dynamic optimization,natural resources,energetic transition,environment
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Lorenzo Cerda Planas (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper intends to provide an alternative approach to the formation of International Environmental Agreements (IEA). The existing consensus within the literature is that there are either too few signatories or that the emissions of signatories are almost the same as business as usual (BAU). I start from a well-known model (Barrett 1997), adding heterogeneity in countries' marginal abatement costs (low and high) and in damages suffered (or corresponding environmental concern). I also allow for technological transfers and border taxes. I show that using either mechanism one at a time, does not change the results. But if both are used in a strategic manner, a grand (and abating) coalition can be reached, while minimizing transfers.
    Keywords: self-enforcing environmental agreements,border tax,tipping
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Mirjam Schindler (IPSE, Université du Luxembourg); Geoffrey Caruso (IPSE, Université du Luxembourg); Pierre M. Picard (CREA, Université du Luxembourg, CORE Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: Exposure to urban traffic-induced air pollution is a major health concern of cities. This paper analyzes the urban structure when localized pollution exposure arises from commuting traffic and investigates the feedback effect of endogenous pollution on residential choices. The presence of stronger traffic-induced air pollution exposure reduces the geographical extent and the population of cities. Land rents fall with distance from the city center while population densities may be non-monotonic. Cleaner vehicle technolo- gies reduce pollution exposure everywhere, increase population and density everywhere and do not affect the spatial extent of the city. The paper com- pares the urban equilibrium with the first-best. The first-best structure is a less expanded city with higher densities at the center and lower densities at the fringe.
    Keywords: residential choice, traffic-induced air pollution, localized pollution exposure, urban structure
    JEL: R11 R14 R41
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government’s efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions.
    Abstract: Actuellement, la fiscalité environnementale française répond moins à une finalité écologique qu’à un objectif plus traditionnel de fiscalité de rendement. Les signes manifestes de cette inadéquation sont la très grande part prise par la fiscalité de l’énergie et le faible niveau de la plupart des taux de taxe, qui souvent ne frappent qu’implicitement les produits polluants. Réformer la fiscalité française supposerait de la « verdir » dans son ensemble en appliquant des taux de taxes en relation avec les dommages marginaux. La réussite de la réforme et son acceptation par les contribuables sont conditionnées par le mécanisme de redistribution associé, les efforts de pédagogie et d’information, la transparence mais aussi, paradoxalement, par l’audace des mesures prises.
    Keywords: environmental tax,double dividend,tax progressivity,progressivité de l’impôt,double dividende,écotaxe,contribution climat-énergie,fiscalité
    Date: 2015–06
  6. By: Michel Beine (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Christopher R. Parsons (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the issue of environmental change as a potential determinant of international migration, thereby providing an extension of our earlier paper. In contrast to Beine and Parsons (2015) and in light of recent empirical contributions, we adopt an alternative identification strategy in which we only include fixed effects together with our measures of climatic change in order to quantify the net partial effect of climatic change on bilateral migration. Again drawing on panel data from 1960-2000, we further exploit the dyadic dimension of our data to highlight the importance of neighbouring countries and former colonial powers in determining the direction of climate-induced emigration. We additionally highlight the importance of how differences in modelling climate change can lead to differing results. Our baseline results suggest that climatic change affects individuals’ credit constraints more than their desire to move. Our key findings are that natural disasters deter emigration from all origin countries but importantly spur emigration to neighbouring countries while for middle income origins, natural disasters while deterring migration, foster emigration to former colonial powers.
    Keywords: International Migration, Environmental change; Natural disasters
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2016

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