nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒19
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la República

  1. Green inventions and greenhouse gas emission dynamics: A close examination of provincial Italian data By Ding Weina; Marianna Gilli; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Francesco Nicolli
  2. The Effects of Emission Taxes on Pollution through the Diffusion of Clean Technology:The Presence of Green Consumers By Wenjun Sun; Naoto Jinji
  3. The Effect of Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards on Technology Adoption By Klier, Thomas H.; Linn, Joshua
  4. Green Subsidies and the WTO By Steve Charnovitz
  5. Accidental Environmentalists? Californian Demand for Teslas and Solar Panels By Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke

  1. By: Ding Weina (Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.); Marianna Gilli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Francesco Nicolli (IRCReS-CNR, Italy; Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.)
    Abstract: Eco-innovation plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions. Exploiting the consolidated IPAT / STIRPAT framework, this paper studies whether a relationship exists between green technological change and both CO2 emissions and emission efficiency (CO2/VA), exploiting a rich panel covering 95 Italian provinces from 1990-2010. The main regression results suggest that green technology has not yet played a significant role in promoting environmental protection, although it significantly improved significantly environmental productivity. Notably, this result is not driven by regional differences, and the main evidence is consistent among different areas of the country.
    Keywords: CO2 emission, Technological Change, Green Patents, IPAT, Environmental Performance
    JEL: Q53 Q55
    Date: 2014–12
  2. By: Wenjun Sun; Naoto Jinji
    Abstract: We analyze how the implementation of an emission tax influences aggregate pollution through the diffusion of a new, less polluting technology. Our focus is on how the consumption behavior of green consumers changes the relationship between policy stringency and the equilibrium state of technology diffusion or the ranking of the states of technology diffusion (i.e., full, partial, and no diffusion) in terms of aggregate pollution. We find that emission taxes should not be too high for an “efficient full-diffusion equilibrium” to emerge, in which the full diffusion of the new technology occurs in equilibrium and attains the lowest level of aggregate pollution. If the emission tax is high, aggregate pollution may be lowest in the no diffusion scenario. In addition, the presence of green consumers narrows the range of emission taxes and degree of the new technology that leads to the efficient full-diffusion equilibrium and widens the range of parameters for which aggregate pollution is lowest in the no diffusion case.
    Keywords: technology diffusion; emission taxes; green consumers
    JEL: Q55 Q58 H23 L13
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Klier, Thomas H. (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Linn, Joshua (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Many countries are tightening passenger vehicle fuel economy standards. The literature on passenger vehicle standards has used structural models to estimate their welfare effects. This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of recently tightened fuel economy standards on technology adoption. Specifically, it investigates changes in the rate and direction of technology adoption, that is, the extent to which technology is used to increase fuel economy at the expense of other vehicle attributes. We find that recent U.S. and European standards have both increased the rate of technology adoption and affected the direction of technology adoption. Producers reduced horsepower and torque compared to a counterfactual in which fuel economy standards remained unchanged. We estimate opportunity costs from reduced horsepower and torque to be of similar magnitude as the gains from fuel savings.
    Keywords: passenger vehicles; U.S. greenhouse gas emissions rate standards; European carbon dioxide emissions rate standards; technology adoption
    JEL: L62 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2014–09–01
  4. By: Steve Charnovitz
    Abstract: This paper provides a detailed explanation how the law of the World Trade Organization regulates environmental subsidies with a focus on renewable energy subsidies. The paper begins by discussing the economic justifications for such subsidies and the criticisms of them and then gives examples of different categories of subsidies. Next the paper provides an overview of the relevant WTO rules and caselaw, including the recent Canada -Renewable Energy case. The paper also makes specific recommendations for how WTO law can be improved, and discusses the existing literature discussing reform proposals. The study further finds that because of a lack of clarity in WTO rules, for some clean energy subsidies, a government will not know in advance whether the subsidy is WTO-legal.
    Keywords: international trade, international law, environmental protection, climate, subsidies, trade law
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke
    Abstract: In the absence of a national carbon tax, household driving and electricity consumption impose social costs. Suburbanites drive more and consume more electricity than center city residents. If more suburbanites purchase electric vehicles (EV) and install solar panels, then their greenhouse gas emissions would sharply decrease. Using several data sets from California, we study the demand for electric vehicles and solar panels. We focus on the Tesla given its status as the highest quality EV. We investigate the joint distribution of the stock returns of Tesla and leading solar panel sellers to test for whether investors anticipate a complementarity in sales between these products. Finally, we use current and past vehicle quality and price data to explore trends in EV quality improvements due to industry competition between brands.
    JEL: Q42 Q5 Q54 R4
    Date: 2014–12

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