nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2012‒12‒22
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators By E. Agliardi; L. Sereno
  2. Lifestyle Choices and Societal Behavior Changes as Local Climate Strategy By Mohanty, Brahmanand; Scherfler, Martin; Devatha, Vikram
  3. A Voting Architecture for the Governance of Free-Driver Externalities, with Application to Geoengineering By Martin Weitzman
  4. The Potential Contribution of the Shipping Sector to an Efficient Reduction of Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions By Nadine Heitmann; Sonja Peterson
  5. Does Tourism Eco-Certification Pay? Costa Rica’s Blue Flag Program By Blackman, Allen; Naranjo, María Angélica; Robalino, Juan; Alpízar, Francisco; Rivera, Jorge
  6. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs? By Mads Greaker, Michael Hoel and Knut Einar Rosendahl

  1. By: E. Agliardi; L. Sereno
    Abstract: We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewable to renewable resources is characterized. Numerical applications show that an increase in emission taxes, abatement costs or demand elasticity slows down the adoption of substitutable renewable resources, while an increase in the natural rate of resource regeneration, the stock of renewable resources or the relative productivity parameter speeds up the investment in the green technology.
    JEL: D81 H23 Q28 Q38 Q40 Q50
    Date: 2012–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bol:bodewp:wp855&r=res
  2. By: Mohanty, Brahmanand (Asian Development Bank Institute); Scherfler, Martin (Asian Development Bank Institute); Devatha, Vikram (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The Asia-Pacific region is witnessing rapid economic growth. Along with rising incomes, the lifestyles of the large middle class are moving quickly towards a buy-and-discard consumer model that involves carbon-intensive products and services. This paper attempts to identify lifestyle changes at the individual level, and behavioral changes at the community level that could offer high carbon abatement potential. It also provides some good practices of public policies and policy recommendations that can be pivotal in making a business case of low-carbon and eco-efficient lifestyles, strengthening collective awareness, and influencing public decision-making in developing countries in Asia.
    Keywords: local climate strategy; renewable resources; conservation; environmental management; environmental modeling
    JEL: F18 H23 Q20 Q21 Q28
    Date: 2012–12–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ris:adbiwp:0398&r=res
  3. By: Martin Weitzman
    Abstract: Climate change is a global "free rider" problem because significant abatement of greenhouse gases is an expensive public good requiring international cooperation to apportion compliance among states. But it is also a global "free driver" problem because geoengineering the stratosphere with reflective particles to block incoming solar radiation is so cheap that it could essentially be undertaken unilaterally by one state perceiving itself to be in peril. This paper develops the main features of a "free driver" externality in a simple model based on the asymmetric consequences of type-I and type-II errors. I propose a social-choice decision architecture based on the solution concept of a supermajority voting rule and derive its basic properties. In the model this supermajority voting rule attains the socially optimal cooperative solution, which is a new theoretical result around which the paper is built.
    JEL: Q5 Q54
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:18622&r=res
  4. By: Nadine Heitmann; Sonja Peterson
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze how much the shipping sector could contribute to global CO2 emission reductions from an efficiency point of view. To do this, a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) for the shipping sector is generated that can be combined with a MACC for conventional CO2 abatement in the production and consumption sectors around the world. These two MACCs are used to assess the following as regards the various global reduction targets: (a) what the maximum global cost savings would be that could be achieved by abating emissions in the shipping sector, (b) how much the shipping sector could contribute to abating emissions cost efficiently, and (c) what the potential additional costs of implementing a separate solution for the shipping sector would be. The focus is on the year 2020. We find that the shipping sector could always contribute to efficient global emission reductions and thus could always achieve global cost savings, but also that the size of the contribution and the size of cost savings depend heavily on the MACC case assumed, i.e., on how the existence of negative abatement costs is treated in a MACC, and on the reduction potentials and costs of measures assumed
    Keywords: climate change, shipping sector, CO2 emissions, marginal abatement cost curve
    JEL: Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:kie:kieliw:1813&r=res
  5. By: Blackman, Allen (Resources for the Future); Naranjo, María Angélica; Robalino, Juan; Alpízar, Francisco; Rivera, Jorge
    Abstract: Tourism associated with beaches, protected areas, and other natural resources often has serious environmental impacts. The problem is especially acute in developing countries, where nature-based tourism is increasingly important and environmental regulation is typically weak. Eco-certification programs—voluntary initiatives certifying that tourism operators meet defined environmental standards—promise to help address this problem by creating a private-sector system of inducements, monitoring, and enforcement. But to do that, they must provide incentives for tourism operators to participate, such as price premiums and more customers. Rigorous evidence on such benefits is virtually nonexistent. To help fill this gap, we use detailed panel data to analyze the effects of the Blue Flag Program, a leading international eco-certification program, in Costa Rica, where nature-based tourism has caused significant environmental damage. We use new hotel investment to proxy for private benefits, and fixed effects and propensity score matching to control for self-selection bias. We find that past Blue Flag certification has a statistically and economically significant effect on new hotel investment, particularly in luxury hotels. Our results suggest that certification has spurred the construction of 12 to 19 additional hotels per year in our regression samples. These findings provide some of the first evidence that eco-certification can generate private benefits for tourism operators in developing countries and therefore has the potential to improve their environmental performance.
    Keywords: Costa Rica, eco-certification, propensity score matching, tourism
    JEL: Q13 Q20 Q26 Q54
    Date: 2012–11–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-50&r=res
  6. By: Mads Greaker, Michael Hoel and Knut Einar Rosendahl (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.
    Keywords: Biofuels; Non-renewable resources; Land-use changes; Climate costs
    JEL: H23 Q30 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ssb:dispap:720&r=res

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