nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2012‒10‒27
five papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. Trade in a'green growth'development strategy : global scale issues and challenges By de Melo, Jaime
  2. International trade and green growth By Copeland, Brian R.
  3. Ecosystem services and green growth By Vincent, Jeffrey R.
  4. Agri-environmental Management during EU Integration of Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  5. Introducing behavioral change in transportation into energy/economy/environment models By Schafer, Andreas

  1. By: de Melo, Jaime
    Abstract: This paper surveys the state of knowledge about the trade-related environmental consequences of a country's development strategy along three channels: (i) direct trade-environment linkages (overexploitation of natural resources and trade-related transport costs); (ii)'virtual trade'in emissions resulting from production activities; and (iii) the product mix attributes of a'green-growth'strategy (environmentally preferable products and goods for environmental management). Trade exacerbates over-exploitation of natural resources in weak institutional environments, but there is little evidence that differences in environmental policies across countries has led to significant'pollution havens.'Trade policies to'level the playing field'would be ineffective and result in destructive conflicts in the World Trade Organization. Lack of progress at the Doha Round suggests the need to modify the current system of global policy making.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2012–10–01
  2. By: Copeland, Brian R.
    Abstract: This paper reviews the challenges and opportunities raised by international trade for developing countries considering a green growth strategy. A key concern is the effect of environmental policies on international competitiveness. For production-generated pollution, there is evidence that stringent environmental policy reduces some indicators of competitiveness, but the effect is small in most sectors. However, tightening up environmental standards is unlikely to reduce international competitiveness when pollution is generated by consumption. And where depletion of natural capital is a threat, effective environmental policy is an important component of a policy aimed at developing long-run international competitiveness. The effects of trade on environmental policy, the interaction between trade and technology transfer, and the interaction between trade and transboundary environmental problems are also reviewed. An emerging issue is the potential use of border taxes to curtail carbon leakage. The paper discusses some of the possible responses by developing countries. Some work has indicated that export taxes or voluntary export restraints applied to carbon-intensive production in non-coalition countries may be preferable to a carbon tariff regime. The paper concludes by suggesting some topics for further research.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2012–10–01
  3. By: Vincent, Jeffrey R.
    Abstract: "Ecosystem services"has become a catch-phrase for the complex connections between the natural environment and human well-being. This paper considers the impact of changes in the supply of ecosystem services, and programs to increase their supply, on near-term growth of gross domestic product. It focuses on the relationship between locally generated versus transboundary services and growth in developing countries, where the highest rates of ecosystem degradation tend to be found. There is a common perception that there is a tradeoff between environmental protection and economic growth, especially in the near term. This perception can make policymakers reluctant to support environmental protection. Where the environment is a source of economically important services, then environmental protection may stimulate growth of gross domestic product instead of reducing it. The paper considers evidence on the economic value of regulating services; the degree to which ecosystems actually supply some of the services they are commonly assumed to supply; and the near-term growth implications of restoring ecosystems, and reducing their loss. This leads to a discussion on the effectiveness of programs intended to reduce ecosystem loss, with a focus on protected areas and payments for ecosystem services, and the effects of these programs on poverty alleviation.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Ecosystems and Natural Habitats,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Wildlife Resources,Climate Change and Environment
    Date: 2012–10–01
  4. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper suggests a holistic framework for analyzing the forms and efficiency of agri-environmental management; assesses evolution of market, private, public and hybrid modes of agri-eco-governance during transition and EU integration in Bulgarian; evaluates the impacts of EU CAP on environmental sustainability of Bulgarian farms; specifies major environmental challenges in Bulgarian agriculture, and suggests recommendations for improvement of public policies for effective environmental management. First, it incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a comprehensive framework of analyzing the eco-management in agriculture. Second, it presents the evolutions of diverse forms of eco-management during post-communist transition and EU integration of Bulgarian agriculture, and analyzes their impact(s) on agents’ behaviour and efficiency. Third, it assesses the impact(s) of dominating system of management and the new public (EU, national) measures on the state of environment, and identifies major eco-challenges, conflicts and risks. Forth, it evaluates the impacts of EU CAP implementation on eco-performance of Bulgarian farms. Finally, it suggests recommendations for institutional modernization and for improvement of public policies for effective environmental management.
    Keywords: agri-eco-governance; market; private; public modes; agricultural transition; eco-effects of EU CAP; Bulgaria
    JEL: Q28 Q24 O13 Q12 Q25 Q18 Q26 O17 Q13
    Date: 2012–10–20
  5. By: Schafer, Andreas
    Abstract: Transportation is vital to economic and social development, but at the same time generates undesired consequences on local, regional, and global scales. One of the largest challenges is the mitigation of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, to which this sector already contributes one-quarter globally and one-third in the United States. Technology measures are the prerequisite for drastically mitigating energy use and all emission species, but they are not sufficient. The resulting need for complementing technology measures with behavioral change policies contrasts sharply with the analyses carried out by virtually all energy / economy / environment (E3) models, given their focus on pure technology-based solutions. This paper addresses the challenges for E3 models to simulate behavioral changes in transportation. A survey of 13 major models concludes that especially hybrid energy models would already be capable of simulating some behavioral change policies, most notably the imposition of the full marginal societal costs of transportation. Another survey of major macroscopic transportation models finds that key specifications required for simulating behavioral change have already been implemented and tested, albeit not necessarily on a global scale. When integrating these key features into E3 models, a wide range of technology and behavioral change policies could be analyzed.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Economics,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Roads&Highways
    Date: 2012–10–01

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