nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2012‒04‒10
six papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. Climate Change and Agricultural Production By Rodomiro Ortiz
  2. Ecosystem Services and Agricultural Production in Latin America and Caribbean By Luiz Antonio Martinelli
  3. Challenges for Low-Carbon Agriculture and Forest Conservation in Brazil By Britaldo Soares Filho; Letícia Lima; Maria Bowman; Letícia Viana
  4. Environmental Tax on Products and Services Based on Their Carbon Footprint: A Case Study of the Pulp and Paper Sector By Gemechu, Eskinder D.; Butnar, Isabela; Llop Llop, Maria; Castells i Piqué, Francesc
  5. Impact of environmental regulations on trade in the main EU countries: conflict or synergy? By de santis, roberta
  6. Economic Aspects of Agricultural and Food Biosecurity By Hennessy, David A.

  1. By: Rodomiro Ortiz
    Abstract: This document discusses the impact that global climate change has on food production both globally and in Latin America and the Caribbean. The author discusses environmental issues including extreme temperatures, water scarcity, flooding, and soil erosion. Using available information, this document discusses the impacts of these issues on Mesoamerica, the Caribbean Islands, the Andean Community, and the Southern Cone. Finally, the paper addresses climate change mitigation and prospects for adapting agriculture to climate change.
    Keywords: Environment & Natural Resources :: Climate Change, Environment & Natural Resources :: Environmental Policy, Environment & Natural Resources :: Biodiversity & Natural Resources Management, Environment & Natural Resources :: Water Management, Agriculture & Food Security :: Agricultural Policy, Agriculture & Food Security :: Plant, Animal, & Food Production, Rural & Urban Development :: Rural Development, Subsistence Agriculture, Climate Change, Water Availability, Soil Erosion, Water Resources, Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    Date: 2012–01
  2. By: Luiz Antonio Martinelli
    Abstract: This document discusses Latin America's dual role as a conservator of natural resources and producer of agricultural services. The author addresses the expansion of agriculture across the region and intensification of agriculture in Latin America. The environmental impact of this expansion and intensification is a major focus of this study as well as an assessment of agricultural and ecosystem services.
    Keywords: Agriculture & Food Security, Environment & Natural Resources :: Biodiversity & Natural Resources Management, Environment & Natural Resources :: Climate Change, Energy & Mining :: Renewable Energy, Agriculture, Ecosystem Services
    Date: 2012–02
  3. By: Britaldo Soares Filho; Letícia Lima; Maria Bowman; Letícia Viana
    Abstract: This paper discusses the feedbacks between climate change, deforestation, and agricultural expansion and presents scenarios of agricultural demand and forest conservation and restoration policies in Brazil. In addition, it discusses the implications of these scenarios for food and befoul supply, the provision of ecosystem services, and climate change mitigation. Modeling these scenarios provides an integrated assessment of plausible pathways for achieving the goals of the National Climate Change Plan, for making an objective source of information available for the debate on the Forest Code, and for supporting Brazil's cropland expansion plan as well as anticipating potential conflicts.
    Keywords: Environment & Natural Resources :: Biodiversity & Natural Resources Management, Environment & Natural Resources :: Climate Change, Environment & Natural Resources :: Forests & Forestry, Agriculture & Food Security :: Plant, Animal, & Food Production, Climate Change, Forest Conservation, Brazil
    Date: 2012–02
  4. By: Gemechu, Eskinder D.; Butnar, Isabela; Llop Llop, Maria; Castells i Piqué, Francesc
    Abstract: The main aim of this work is to define an environmental tax on products and services based on their carbon footprint. We examine the relevance of conventional life cycle analysis (LCA) and environmentally extended input-output analysis (EIO) as methodological tools to identify emission intensities of products and services on which the tax is based. The short-term price effects of the tax and the policy implications of considering non-GHG are also analyzed. The results from the specific case study on pulp production show that the environmental tax rate based on the LCA approach (1,8%) is higher than both EIO approaches (0,8% for product and 1,4% for industry approach), but they are comparable. Even though LCA is more product specific and provides detailed analysis, EIO would be the more relevant approach to apply economy wide environmental tax. When the environmental tax considers non-GHG emissions instead of only CO2, sectors such as agriculture, mining of coal and extraction of peat, and food exhibit higher environmental tax and price effects. Therefore, it is worthwhile for policy makers to pay attention on the implication of considering only CO2 tax or GHG emissions tax in order for such a policy measure to be effective and meaningful. Keywords: Environmental tax; Life cycle analysis; Environmental input-output analysis.
    Keywords: Medi ambient -- Impostos, Medi ambient -- Anàlisi d'impacte, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2012
  5. By: de santis, roberta
    Abstract: In an increasingly integrated world with declining trade barriers, environmental regulations can have a decisive role in shaping countries’ comparative advantages. The conventional wisdom about environmental protection is that it comes at an additional cost on firms imposed by the government, which may erode their global competitiveness. However, this paradigm has been challenged by some analysts. In particular, Porter (1991) and Porter and Van der Linde (1995) argue that pollution is often associated with a waste of resources and that more stringent environmental policies can stimulate innovations that may over-compensate for the costs of complying with these policies. This is known as the Porter hypothesis. While there is a broad empirical literature on the impact of trade on environment the empirical literature on the impact of environmental regulations on trade flows is relatively scarce, very heterogeneous and presents mixed results. The innovative feature of this paper is its attempts to estimate, in a gravity setting, augmented with a proxi of environmental stringency, the impact of three major Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) on 15 EU countries bilateral exports. According to our estimates, in the period 1988-2008, to be member of MEAs had a positive average impact on EU15 bilateral exports. This evidence can be partly explained by a possible trade diversion effect with respect to countries that did not sign MEAs, and a corresponding trade creation effect among members of the environmental agreements. Furthermore, evidence coming from interaction effects estimates seems to show that for exporting countries having signed the UNFCCC and the Montreal agreements, partly mitigates (by the amount of the estimated coefficient ) the negative impact of having a relatively more stringent environmental regulation on bilateral trade. This result could have important policy implications for the future international trade- environmental negotiations.
    Keywords: Comparative advantage; environmental regulation; trade
    JEL: F18
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Hennessy, David A.
    Abstract: Concerns about biosecurity in the food system raise a variety of issues about how the system is presently organized, why it might be vulnerable, what we could reasonably do to better secure it, and the costs of doing so. Emphasizing the role of incentives in efficient resource allocation, this article considers economic dimensions of three aspects of the general problem. One is the global problem, or the way biosecurity measures can affect how countries relate to each other and the global consequences that result. Another is how to best manage the immediate aftermath of a realized threat in order to minimize damage. The third is how to seek to prevent realization of the threat. Some policy alternatives are presented.
    Date: 2012–03–29

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