nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2011‒12‒13
seven papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. On Local Environmental Protection By Fabio Fiorillo; Agnese Sacchi
  2. The emission trading scheme in polish law. Selected problems related to the scope of derogation from the general rule for auctioning in Poland By Stoczkiewicz, Marcin
  3. Do not Trash the Incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting By Alessandro Bucciol; Natalia Montinari; Marco Piovesan
  4. Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan By Muhammad, Shahbaz; Lean, Hooi Hooi; Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir
  5. Cities and Green Growth: A Conceptual Framework By Stephen Hammer; Lamia Kamal-Chaoui; Alexis Robert; Marissa Plouin
  6. The Uniform World Model: A Methodology for Predicting the Health Impacts of Air Pollution By Joseph V. Spadaro
  7. Management of Hazardous Waste and Contaminated Land By Hilary Sigman; Sarah Stafford

  1. By: Fabio Fiorillo; Agnese Sacchi
    Abstract: We hereby propose a model to analyze the provision of environmental protection activities (United Nation 2005) with positive interregional externalities in order to verify - at least in theory - whether this kind of policy is better accomplished through centralized policymaking, which implies a coordinated solution among local representatives, or a decentralized system, whereby local authorities independently finance and implement their environmental protection policy. The research question concerns the identification of criteria on how to allocate powers and functions to environmental management at different tiers of government. Moreover, modelling interregional externalities as a mechanism contributing to lowering the cost of financing environmental policy in each region (production externality), we can assume that different environmental policies are allowed across regions. Given this general framework, considerations favouring either institutional setting in terms of individuals’ welfare seem to involve interaction among these key elements: the extent of the inter-jurisdictional spillovers, the size of local jurisdictions and the regional preferences for environmental protection policy.
    Keywords: Environmental protection activities; Environmental federalism; Externalities; Local government
    JEL: H71 H73 H23 Q58
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Stoczkiewicz, Marcin
    Abstract: The subject matter of this article is the implementation in Poland of Directive 2003/87/EC on the emissions trading scheme for greenhouse gases in the Community. The first part of the article focuses on the presentation of the legislation and institutional arrangements which transpose the obligations contained in Directive 2003/87/EC into Polish law. On the basis of this, the article then presents some problems regarding the implementation in Poland of important changes introduced into Directive 2003/87/EC by Directive 2009/29/EC. This part of the article contains an analysis of Article 50 of the new Act on the System of Greenhouse Emission Trading, which introduces specific rules for licensing bodies that undertake investment in terms of compliance with the provisions of Directive 2009/29/EC. Secondly, this paper also presents a preliminary assessment of the proposed free allocation of greenhouse gas emissions allowances in Poland to electricity production enterprises. This is examined from the viewpoint of the possibility of State aid in the meaning of Article 107(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
    Keywords: environmental law; directive 2003/87/EC; emission trading; auctioning; free allocation; State aid
    JEL: K21
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Alessandro Bucciol (University of Verona, University of Amsterdam and Netspar); Natalia Montinari (Max Planck Institute of Economics Jena, Strategic Interaction Group); Marco Piovesan (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the waste management policies experienced during the years 1999-2008 by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel analysis that pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) incentive schemes increase by 12.3% the sorted-total waste ratio. This increase reflects a change in the behavior of households, who keep unaltered the production of total waste but sort it to a larger extent. Our data show that household behavior is also influenced by the policies of adjacent municipalities.
    Keywords: Incentives, environment, waste management, PAYT
    JEL: D01 D78 Q53
    Date: 2011–12–02
  4. By: Muhammad, Shahbaz; Lean, Hooi Hooi; Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir
    Abstract: The paper is an effort to fill the gap in the energy literature with a comprehensive country study for Pakistan. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth and trade openness for Pakistan over the period of 1971-2009. Bounds test for cointegration and Granger causality test are employed for the empirical analysis. The result suggests that there exists long-run relationship among the variables and the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is supported. The significant existence of EKC shows the country's effort to condense CO2 emissions and indicates a reasonable achievement of controlling environmental degradation in Pakistan. Furthermore, we find one-way causal relationship running from income to CO2 emissions. Energy consumption increases CO2 emissions both in the short and long runs. Trade openness reduces CO2 emissions in the long run but it is insignificant in the short run. In addition, the change in CO2 emissions from short run to the long span of time is corrected by about 10 percent each year.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; energy consumption; trade openness
    JEL: P28
    Date: 2011–11–10
  5. By: Stephen Hammer; Lamia Kamal-Chaoui; Alexis Robert; Marissa Plouin
    Abstract: This report examines the current state of knowledge about green growth in cities and outlines the key research questions and protocols that will guide the OECD Green Cities programme. It builds the case for an urban green growth agenda by examining the economic and environmental conditions that have pushed the green growth agenda to the forefront of policy debate and assessing the critical role of cities in advancing green growth. Section 1 lays the context for the paper, examining why green growth is important and how it can be defined in an urban context. Section 2 focuses on policies and tools that enable the transition to green growth in cities. It concludes with a proposal for a policy framework for an urban green growth agenda that is based on a set of hypotheses of desirable economic scenarios. Section 3 examines the main challenges to advancing an urban green growth agenda. It explores the roles that multi-level governance, measuring and monitoring tools and finance must play in delivering green growth in cities. The report concludes with suggestions for future research, including recommendations on how national policymakers responsible for regional and urban policies can advance an urban green growth agenda.
    Keywords: sustainable development, government policy, planning, global warming, regional, regional economics, urban sustainability, territorial, cities, urban, green growth, climate
    JEL: O1 O3 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 R1 R4 R5
    Date: 2011–12–06
  6. By: Joseph V. Spadaro
    Abstract: Throughout history, technological development and economic growth has led to greater prosperity and overall standard of living for many people in society. However, along with the benefits of economic development comes the social responsibility of minimizing the mortality and morbidity health impacts associated with human activities, safeguarding ecosystems, protecting world cultural heritage and preventing integrity and amenity losses of man-made environments. Effects are often irreversible, extend way beyond national borders and can occur over a long time lag. At current pollutant levels, the monetized impacts carry a significant burden to society, on the order of few percent of a country’s GDP, and upwards to 10% of GDP for countries in transition. A recent study for the European Union found that the aggregate damage burden from industrial air pollution alone costs every man, woman and child between 200 and 330 € a year, of which CO2 emissions contributed 40 to 60% (EEA 2011).<br /> <br /> In a sustainable world, an assessment of the environmental impacts (and damage costs) imposed by man\\\'s decisions on present and future generations is necessary when addressing the cost effectiveness of local and national policy options that aim at improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for calculating such adverse public health outcomes arising from exposure to routine atmospheric pollutant emissions using a simplified methodology, referred to as the Uniform World Model (UWM). The UWM clearly identifies the most relevant factors of the analysis, is easy to implement and requires only a few key input parameters that are easily obtained by the analyst, even to someone living in a developing country. The UWM is exact in the limit all parameters are uniformly distributed, due to mass conservation.<br /> <br /> The current approach can be applied to elevated and mobile sources. Its robustness has been validated (typical deviations are well within the ±50% range) by comparison with much more detailed air quality and environmental impact assessment models, such as ISC3, CALPUFF, EMEP and GAINS. Several comparisons illustrating the wide range of applicability of the UWM are presented in the paper, including estimation of mean concentrations at the local, country and continental level and calculation of local and country level intake factors and marginal damage costs of primary particulate matter and inorganic secondary aerosols. Relationships are also provided for computing spatial concentration profiles and cumulative impact or damage cost distributions. Assessments cover sources located in the USA, Europe, East Asia (China) and South Asia (India).<br />
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Urban Air Quality, Particulate Matter, Air Quality Modeling, Health Impact Assessment, Loss of Life Expectancy, Damage Costs of Air Pollution
    Date: 2011–12
  7. By: Hilary Sigman (Rutgers University and NBER); Sarah Stafford (College of William and Mary)
    Abstract: Regulation of hazardous waste and cleanup of contaminated sites are two major components of modern public policy for environmental protection. We review the literature on these related areas, with emphasis on empirical analyses. Researchers have identified many behavioral responses to regulation of hazardous waste, including changes in the location of economic activity. However, the drivers behind compliance with these costly regulations remain a puzzle, as most research suggests a limited role for conventional enforcement. Increasingly sophisticated research examines the benefits of cleanup of contaminated sites, yet controversy remains about whether the benefits of cleanup in the U.S. exceed its costs. Finally, research focusing on the imposition of legal liability for damages from hazardous waste finds advantages and disadvantages of the U.S. reliance on legal liability to pay for cleanup, as opposed to the government-financed approaches more common in Europe.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics, Pollution, Liability, Enforcement, Superfund
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2010–11–18

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