nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2011‒01‒16
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. Do Natural Resource Revenues Hinder Financial Development? The role of political Institutions By Sambit Bhattacharyya; Roland Hodler
  2. Growth and the Optimal Carbon Tax: When to switch from exhaustible resources to renewables? By Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen
  3. Environmental concern and the choice of transport infrastructure projects in Sweden By Jussila Hammes, Johanna

  1. By: Sambit Bhattacharyya; Roland Hodler
    Abstract: We theoretically and empirically examine the relationship between natural resource revenues and financial development. In the theoretical part, we present a politico-economic model in which contract enforcement is low and decreasing in resource revenues when political institutions are poor, but high otherwise. As poor contract enforcement leads to low financial development, the model predicts that resource revenues hinder financial development in countries with poor political institutions, but not in countries with comparatively better political institutions. We test our theoretic predictions systematically using panel data covering the period 1970 to 2005 and 133 countries. Our estimates confirm our theoretical predictions. Our main results hold when we control country fixed effects, time varying common shocks, income and various additional covariates. They are also robust to alternative estimation techniques, various alternative measures of financial development and political institutions, as well as across different samples and data frequencies. We present further evidence using panel data covering the period 1870 to 1940 and 31 countries..
    Keywords: Natural resources; political institutions; financial development
    JEL: D7 O1
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oxf:oxcrwp:053&r=res
  2. By: Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen
    Abstract: Optimal climate policy is studied in a Ramsey growth model. A developing economy weighs global warming less, hence is more likely to exhaust fossil fuel and exacerbate global warming. The optimal carbon tax is higher for a developed economy. We analyze the optimal time of transition from fossil fuel to renewables, amount of fossil fuel to leave in situ, and carbon tax. Subsidizing a backstop without an optimal carbon tax induces more fossil fuel to be left in situ and a quicker phasing in of renewables, but fossil fuel is depleted more quickly. Global warming need thus not be alleviated.
    Keywords: carbon tax, renewables, exhaustible resources, global warming, growth, intergenerational inequality aversion, second best, Green Paradox
    JEL: D90 E13 Q30 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oxf:oxcrwp:055&r=res
  3. By: Jussila Hammes, Johanna (Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI)
    Abstract: One of the goals of transport policy in Sweden is to minimize the impact from transport on the environment. Using a database consisting of over 800 rail, road and maritime transport infrastructure projects, we estimate whether environmental factors, such as negative environmental effects arising from the project (noise and barrier effects), or emissions of five pollutants (NOx, VOC, CO2, SO2 and PM) affect the choice of which projects will be built. For a broader model including all three transport modes, we find that projects that cause negative environmental effects in fact have a greater probability of being included in the National or a Regional Transport Infrastructure Plan for 2010-2021. For a narrower model including only road investments, we find that if we include a measure for the Net Benefit/Investment Cost Ratio (NBIR), only the negative environmental effects matter and raise the probability of a project being included in a Plan. Excluding the NBIR measure reveals that what matters are the CO emissions and traffic safety measures. Thus, an increase in the emissions of CO lowers the project's probability of being included in a Plan, and traffic safety benefits increase the probability.
    Keywords: Transport infrastructure; Environment; Emissions
    JEL: D70 H54 Q58
    Date: 2010–12–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:vtiwps:2010_017&r=res

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