nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2010‒10‒09
four papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. Pollution Exposure and Infant Health: Evidence from Germany By Katja Coneus; C. Katharina Spieß
  2. Economic Growth and Environmental Policy with Short-lived Governments By Itziar Lazkano; Francisco M Gonzalez; Sjak Smulders
  3. Trade and Climate Change: The Challenges Ahead By de Melo, Jaime; Mathys, Nicole Andréa
  4. Banking on Allowances: The EPA’s Mixed Record in Managing Emissions-Market Transitions By Fraas, Arthur G.; Richardson, Nathan

  1. By: Katja Coneus; C. Katharina Spieß
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of outdoor and indoor pollution on children¿s health from birth until the age of three years in Germany. We use representative data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), combined with five air pollution levels. These data come from the Federal Environment Agency and cover the years 2002-2007. Our work offers three important contributions. Firstly, we use accurate measures for five different pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10) on a (half-)hourly basis. Secondly, we are able to follow the effect of pollution exposure on a child¿s health during the first three years of life, accounting for time-invariant and unobserved neighborhood and mother-specific characteristics. Thirdly, we calculate different pollution intensity measures. Instead of relying solely on mean pollution levels, we are able to use (half-)hourly pollution levels as well as indoor pollution as meas-urements for the total latent pollution exposure. Our results suggest a significantly negative impact for some pollutants on infant health during early childhood. In comparison to outdoor pollution, indoor pollution seems to be more harmful directly after birth, while the relation-ship between indoor and outdoor pollution changes later in childhood. Since smoking is one source of producing carbon monoxide and thus affects child health negatively, our results further support the advice to parents of young children not to smoke.
    Keywords: Indoor and outdoor pollution, health, early childhood
    JEL: I12 Q53 J13
    Date: 2010
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp312&r=res
  2. By: Itziar Lazkano; Francisco M Gonzalez; Sjak Smulders
    Date: 2010–01–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:clg:wpaper:2010-20&r=res
  3. By: de Melo, Jaime; Mathys, Nicole Andréa
    Abstract: The outcome of the 15th conference of the Parties to the UNFCC showed a shift from a top-down approach with a collective target favoring environmental objectives to a bottom-up accord favoring political feasibility with no meaningful binding agreement in sight as the global climate regime and the global trade policy regime represented by the WTO appear to be on a collision course. Following a review of the alternative architectures for the next Climate Change Agreement, the paper outlines four areas in which trade will play a role: as a purveyor of technological transfer; as a mechanism to separate where abatement takes place from who bears the cots of abatement; as a participation mechanism; and as a way to address the pressures for border adjustments. Political-economy considerations are invoked to predict that a target system with a carbon credit system will be preferable to a carbon tax or to a portfolio system of treaties. A review of evidence on the extent of pollution haven effects suggests that these should be small under climate mitigation policies, especially if efforts are undertaken to raise the price of energy. A discussion of border measures to complement mitigation policies suggests that they are unlikely to be found compatible with the environmental exceptions allowed under article XX of the GATT. The review concludes that an umbrella agreement with leeway where much initial mitigation would first take place unilaterally as under the early days of the GATT might be the most promising way ahead while preserving an open World Trading System and environmental integrity.
    Keywords: Climate Change; WTO
    JEL: F18 Q56
    Date: 2010–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8032&r=res
  4. By: Fraas, Arthur G. (Resources for the Future); Richardson, Nathan (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: The history of emissions-trading markets in the United States is marked by change. Since cap-and-trade programs were first implemented on a large scale after the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has repeatedly revised and replaced emissions-trading markets for nitrous oxides and sulfur dioxide. In each transition, the agency has had to decide what to do with emissions allowances banked in the earlier program. These banked allowances represent early reductions in emissions, with corresponding environmental benefits, but also the expectation on the part of regulated entities that they will continue to hold value in the future. Unsettling these expectations can lead to price volatility, instability in markets, and erosion of buy-in from regulated entities and the credibility of regulators. The paper discusses EPA’s mixed record regarding these transitions and implications for the future of cap and trade as a policy tool.
    Keywords: cap and trade, nitrous oxides, sulfur dioxide, banking, borrowing, CAIR, NOx SIP Call, Transport Rule, Clean Air Act, EPA
    Date: 2010–09–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-10-42.pdf&r=res

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