nep-res New Economics Papers
on Resource Economics
Issue of 2008‒02‒02
three papers chosen by
Maximo Rossi
Universidad de la Republica

  1. An Overview of Carbon Markets and Emissions Trading: Lessons for Canada By Michael R. King
  2. Are current levels of air pollution in England too high? The impact of pollution on population mortality By John Henderson; Katharina Janke; Carol Propper
  3. Chernobyl's Subclinical Legacy: Prenatal Exposure to Radioactive Fallout and School Outcomes in Sweden By Douglas Almond; Lena Edlund; Marten Palme

  1. By: Michael R. King
    Abstract: The author provides an overview of carbon markets and explains how emissions trading can be important in encouraging the reduction of CO2 emissions in an efficient manner. He describes the key steps in establishing a cap-and-trade system, and reviews the European experiences with emissions trading. He highlights the lessons learned from the EU Emissions Trading System on how to design a market that operates efficiently and effectively. By learning from the experience of other countries, Canada can avoid the uncertainty and volatility witnessed in carbon markets abroad while benefiting from an efficient trading mechanism that contributes to the welfare of all Canadians.
    Keywords: International topics; Market structure and pricing
    JEL: D4 N50 Q21
    Date: 2008
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bca:bocadp:08-1&r=res
  2. By: John Henderson; Katharina Janke; Carol Propper
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between common sources of airborne pollution and population mortality in present day England. The current air quality limit values are low by both historical and international standards, and these are set at levels which are believed not to be harmful to health. We assess whether this view is correct. We use data at local authority level for the period 1998 to 2004 to examine whether current levels of airborne pollution, as measured by annual mean concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10) and ozone, are associated with excess deaths. We examine all cause mortality and deaths from specific cardiovascular and respiratory causes that are known to be exacerbated by air pollution. We exploit the panel nature of our data to control for any unobserved time-invariant associations at local authority level between high levels of pollution and poor population health and estimate multi-pollutant models to allow for the fact that three of the pollutants are closely correlated. We find higher levels of PM10 and ozone are associated with higher mortality rates. The size of the effects we find translates into around 4,500 deaths per annum.
    Keywords: airborne pollutants, adult mortality, geographical analysis
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2007–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cep:sticas:/128&r=res
  3. By: Douglas Almond (Department of Economics, Columbia University); Lena Edlund (Department of Economics, Columbia University); Marten Palme (Stockholm School of Economics - Department of Economic Statistics)
    Abstract: Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated 8-25 weeks after ovulation subsequently suffered reduced IQ [Otake and Schull, 1998]. Whether these findings generalize to low doses (less than 10 mGy) has not been established. This paper exploits the natural experiment generated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 1986, which caused a spike in radiation levels in Sweden. In a comprehensive data set of 562,637 Swedes born 1983-1988, we find the cohort in utero during the Chernobyl accident had worse school outcomes than adjacent birth cohorts, and this deterioration was largest for those exposed approximately 8-25 weeks post conception. Moreover, we find larger damage among students born in regions that received more fallout: students from the eight most affected municipalities were 3.6 percentage points less likely to qualify to high school as a result of the fallout. Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to ionizing radiation damages cognitive ability at radiation levels previously considered safe.
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:clu:wpaper:0607-19&r=res

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