nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2022‒12‒19
ten papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  2. Collaboration Between and Within Groups By Matias Iaryczower; Santiago Oliveros; Parth Parihar
  3. Use of Competency Management Methods and Tools in Project-based Organizations By Kaouthar Mlaouhi; Lilia Gzara; Céline Cholez
  4. Discovery through Trial Balloons By Eitan Sapiro-Gheiler
  6. Financial development cycles and income inequality in a model with good and bad projects. By Spiros Bougheas; Pasquale Commendatore; Laura Gardini; Ingrid Kubin
  7. The Challenge and Difficulties of Remote Work By agarwal, shekhar
  8. Equity of options for funding long-term infrastructure investment By Murray, Cameron; Helm, Tim
  9. From public labs to private firms: magnitude and channels of R&D spillovers By Antonin Bergeaud; Arthur Guillouzouic; Emeric Henry; Clement Malgouyres
  10. Saving Social Security Disability Insurance: Designing and Testing Reforms through Demonstration Projects By Fichtner, Jason; Seligman, Jason

  1. By: , editor2021; Younus, Ahmed Muayad
    Abstract: Pandemic Covid 19 has altered the perspective on Construction Projects, making them more dynamic. Restriction of activity also exacerbates the challenges associated with construction projects; thus, it is vital to determine how projects may be sustained in their entirety. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the influence of Agile and Business Performance (BP) on Construction Projects (COP) in a period of pandemic covid-19 and community movement constraints. This study route is classified into two categories based on its analysis: direct and indirect influence. This research surveyed 146 respondents from numerous Malaysian construction companies. The study's primary conclusion is that Agile and Business Performance (BP) factors can influence and Construction Projects (COP) The research adds value because of the test outcomes. Ascertained that a strong management system, Agile, and Business Performance (BP) assistance will improve the performance of construction projects.
    Date: 2022–06–09
  2. By: Matias Iaryczower; Santiago Oliveros; Parth Parihar
    Abstract: We study the ability of multi-group teams to undertake binary projects in a decentralized environment. The equilibrium outcomes of our model display familiar features in collaborative settings, including inefficient gradualism, inaction, and contribution cycles, wherein groups alternate taking responsibility for moving the project forward. Expected delay grows more than proportionally with project size, and some welfare-enhancing projects are not completed, even as agents become arbitrarily patient. A team composed of two equally large groups can complete larger projects than a fully homogenous team, even as the difference in preferences for completion among the two groups is arbitrarily small. Moreover, if the project is sufficiently large, the two-group team always completes the project strictly faster.
    JEL: C72 D72
    Date: 2022–11
  3. By: Kaouthar Mlaouhi (G-SCOP_SIREP - Système d’Information, conception RobustE des Produits - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Lilia Gzara (DISP - Décision et Information pour les Systèmes de Production - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - INSA Lyon - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon - Université de Lyon - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées); Céline Cholez (PACTE - Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Competency management has traditionally been the responsibility of human resources (HR) management particularly to evaluate employees and manage their careers. With the compression of time to market for new products, the increased need for agility in the face of hazards and the increase in turnover, competency management is becoming a fundamental element in project management. On the one hand, it enables managing individual competencies with the aim of assigning the most appropriate people to a project's missions, along with the consideration of collective competencies in order to improve performance. On the other hand, it guarantees the evolution of human capital as well as the transfer of skills in case of turnover. The objective of this work is to study the use of competency management methods and tools in project management. In addition to reviewing the literature, semi-directive interviews were conducted with a number of practitioners working in companies organized by projects. These interviews were analysed using a qualitative method in order to understand how companies manage employees' competencies in projects. The results of this study showed that competency management remains largely the responsibility of the HR department and that tools used for this purpose are not mobilized in projects.
    Abstract: La gestion des compétences relève traditionnellement de la gestion de ressources humaines (RH) notamment dans une perspective d'évaluation et de gestion de carrière. Avec la compression des délais de mise sur le marché de nouveaux produits, les besoins accrus d'agilité face aux aléas et l'augmentation du turnover, la gestion des compétences devient un élément fondamental dans la gestion de projets. Elle permet d'abord de gérer les compétences individuelles dans le but d'affecter les acteurs les plus adéquats aux missions d'un projet, ainsi que la prise en compte des compétences collectives afin d'améliorer les performances. Par ailleurs, elle garantit l'évolution du capital humain ainsi que le transfert de compétences en cas de turnover. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier l'usage des méthodes et outils de gestion de compétences dans le pilotage de projets. Outre l'examen de la littérature, des entretiens semi-directifs ont été menés avec un nombre de praticiens travaillant dans des entreprises organisées par projets. Ces entretiens ont été analysés à l'aide d'une méthode qualitative afin de comprendre comment les entreprises gèrent leurs employés dans les projets. Les résultats de notre étude ont montré que la gestion des compétences reste en grande partie la responsabilité de la Direction RH et que les dispositifs utilisés à cet effet ne sont pas mobilisés dans les projets.
    Keywords: Competencies management,Project-based organizations,Exploratory study,Semi-structured interviews
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Eitan Sapiro-Gheiler
    Abstract: A principal and an agent face symmetric uncertainty about the value of two correlated projects for the agent. The principal chooses which project values to publicly discover and then makes a proposal to the agent, who accepts if and only if the expected sum of values is positive. We characterize optimal discovery for various principal preferences: maximizing the probability of the grand bundle, of having at least one project approved, and of a weighted combination of projects. Our results highlight the usefulness of trial balloons: projects which are ex-ante disfavored but have higher variance than a more favored alternative. Disfavored projects may be optimal even when they have lower variance than the alternative, so long as there is sufficient risk that alternative could be rejected by the agent. These conclusions rationalize the inclusion of controversial policies in omnibus bills and the presence of moonshot projects in organizations.
    Date: 2022–11
  5. By: David Oluwatofun Akinwaminde; Olayiwola Oladiran; Jonas Hahn
    Abstract: A city can be termed smart when it is able to effectively apply ICT and other smart technologies in achieving intelligent solutions to everyday challenges posed by the city. In view of this, smart housing concept leverage on smart technologies and data to solve housing problems in smart city projects. In most African smart city projects, the problem lies with the numerous hindrances on techniques to the adopon of Smart housing solutions. The initiative of Nigeria Smart City Iniave (NSCI) is to transform Nigerian major urban centres from traditional dysfunctional cies to modern, efficient, responsive ones capable of satisfying the needs of present and future generations of Nigerians. Using Akwa Millennium City project in Nigeria, this study examines the barriers to the adoption of smart housing concepts in African smart city projects. Structured questionnaires were purposively administered to all the staff of Akwa Millennium City project while all retrieved questionnaires were found suitable for analysis. Descriptive stastics were employed to analyze the data collected from the respondents. Findings depicted that the major barriers could be classified as socio-economic, technical and policy hindrances in the delivery of smart housing in Akwa Millennium City project in Nigeria. It's noteworthy that smart housing concept could be unaffordable due to the most perceived barriers (such as limited consumer demand, retrofitting of existing homes and buildings, lack of financial and financing incentives, high cost of development, and smart technology as divisive, exclusive or irrelevant) in the development of African smart city projects. This study therefore recommends that developers should focus on socio-economic attributes in the adoption of smart housing concepts to achieve an effective planning of smart city projects in Nigeria and Africa at large.
    Keywords: Africa; Akwa Millennium City; Esg; SDGs11; Smart City; Smart Housing
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  6. By: Spiros Bougheas; Pasquale Commendatore; Laura Gardini; Ingrid Kubin
    Abstract: We introduce a banking sector and heterogeneous agents in the Matsuyama et al. (2016) dynamic over-lapping generations neoclassical model with good and bad projects. The model captures the benefits and costs of an advanced banking system which can facilitate economic development when allocates resources to productive activities but can also hamper progress when invests in projects that do not contribute to capital formation. When the economy achieves higher stages of development it becomes prone to cycles. We show how the disparity of incomes across agents depends on changes in both the prices of the factors of production and the reallocation of agents across occupations.
    Keywords: banks; financial innovation; economic development; business cycles; income inequality
    Date: 2022
  7. By: agarwal, shekhar
    Abstract: This research explores numerous remote work models now in use and includes suggestions for the supervision of remote employees' performance, the training of remote workers' supervisors, and the development of a culture that is compatible with distant work. We discovered that companies use remote work arrangements to recruit and retain the world's finest workers. Additionally, they compete locally for talent that is otherwise confined by location. Time and concentration are seen as more precious in distant work environments. Consequently, coordinating remote work teams need successful meetings and projects. Much more frequent performance appraisals of remote employees are conducted. Managers contact with remote employees more often, albeit for shorter periods of time. Instead, being compared to their coworkers on-site, remote employees are evaluated based on how successfully they completed tasks and reached goals. Managers oppose casual, face-to-face meetings. Information is rapidly disseminated across different technologies to improve awareness and concentration. On-site employees may regard remote work as an advantage that is unavailable to them. Companies exert considerable effort to establish cultural norms, and managers work together to eradicate these potentially poisonous attitudes. This study suggests determining which model of remote work best achieves the project or team's objectives, incorporating performance reviews into weekly conversations with remote workers, establishing and reinforcing technology, meeting, and collaborative effort norms that ensure success, and training managers and team leaders to keep meetings and projects well-organized.
    Date: 2022–06–18
  8. By: Murray, Cameron (The University of Sydney); Helm, Tim
    Abstract: This report provides advice on the equity of funding future investment in growth-related infrastructure from new development rather than general rates, and via upfront rather than ongoing payments, in the context of Auckland Council’s proposal to include projects planned beyond the 10s- year period of the Long-term Plan 2021-2031 in the calculation of development contributions. The significance of the expected cost impacts from this proposal makes it important to assess whether the change supports fair, equitable and proportionate cost recovery, and to understand the costs and benefits of using development contributions vs alternative approaches. The report concludes that it is more equitable to fund future growth-related infrastructure by taxing new development, such as via development contributions, than by taxing ratepayers across the city. Equity in funding local public goods, such as infrastructure, means those who cause the need for expenditure, and/or those who benefit from it, should fund it. Benefits in this context are best identified as land value uplift from the full planning process – both rezoning and infrastructure delivery. Infrastructure users are not beneficiaries in any meaningful sense, because they have already paid for the ongoing value of its services in the upfront price of their property. Since development causes the need for growth infrastructure, and developable land benefits most significantly, it is fair to collect funding from developers rather than ratepayers. This applies to post-2031 infrastructure just as to pre-2031 infrastructure. Moving closer to full cost recovery by treating all planned investment on the same basis therefore improves the equity of the overall funding model, better aligning funding practice with ethical and legislative principles. Charges that reflect the higher costs of greenfields development will also incentivise development to be undertaken where it has lower public cost. Early developers contribute towards the need for infrastructure as much as late developers, so this proposal also reduces the inequity of under-charging early developers inherent in current practice. The proposal is a logical application of accepted principles and raises no major equity concerns. An extended lag between payment and infrastructure delivery is not inequitable, because developers benefit financially from planned infrastructure long before delivery. Greater uncertainty over future costs may result in larger revisions to contribution levels, but there is minimal risk of over-charging. The report argues that whether funding for post-2031 infrastructure is collected upfront via development contributions or over time via targeted rates is a second-order issue, since the economic impacts are broadly similar.
    Date: 2022–06–09
  9. By: Antonin Bergeaud; Arthur Guillouzouic; Emeric Henry; Clement Malgouyres
    Abstract: Introducing a new measure of scientific proximity between private firms and public research groups and exploiting a multi-billion euro financing program of academic clusters in France, we provide causal evidence of spillovers from academic research to private sector firms. Firms in the top quartile of exposure to the funding shock increase their R&D effort by 20% compared to the bottom quartile. We exploit reports produced by funded clusters, complemented by data on labor mobility and R&D public-private partnerships, to provide evidence on the channels for these spillovers. We show that spillovers are driven by outsourcing of R&D activities by the private to the public sectors and, to a lesser extent, by labor mobility from one to the other and by informal contacts. We discuss the policy implications of these findings.
    Keywords: knowledge spillovers, policy instruments, technological distance
    Date: 2022–10–26
  10. By: Fichtner, Jason; Seligman, Jason (Mercury Publication)
    Abstract: This study will apply lessons from the program design literature and complex project archetypes to the objective of reforming Social Security Disability Insurance in the next several years –the window of time currently granted by the 2015 Bipartisan Budge

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.