nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2022‒11‒14
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Can agricultural development projects empower women? A synthesis of mixed methods evaluations using pro-WEAI in the gender, agriculture, and assets project (phase 2) portfolio By Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Malapit, Hazel J.; Seymour, Greg; Heckert, Jessica; Doss, Cheryl; Johnson, Nancy; Rubin, Deborah; Thai, Giang; Ramani, Gayathri V.; Meyers, Emily
  2. Beyond reducing deforestation: impacts of conservation programs on household livelihoods By Gabriela Demarchi; Caue D Carrilho; Thibault Catry; Stibniati Atmadja; Julie Subervie
  3. Public-private partnership in higher education: analysis of the positive effect of exchanges of experience on the behavior of students in business creation By Lassana Toure
  4. Analyzing Trends in APEC Using Data Analytics By Quismorio, Brenda A.; Lagria, Raymond Freth A.
  5. Titling and Beyond : Evidence from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania By Panman,Alexandra Patricia; Lozano Gracia,Nancy

  1. By: Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Malapit, Hazel J.; Seymour, Greg; Heckert, Jessica; Doss, Cheryl; Johnson, Nancy; Rubin, Deborah; Thai, Giang; Ramani, Gayathri V.; Meyers, Emily
    Abstract: Agricultural development projects increasingly include women’s empowerment and gender equality among their objectives, but efforts to evaluate their impact have been stymied by the lack of comparable measures. Moreover, the context-specificity of empowerment implies that a quantitative measure alone will be inadequate to capture the nuances of the empowerment process. The Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project, Phase 2 (GAAP2), a portfolio of 13 agricultural development projects in nine countries in South Asia and Africa, developed the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) and qualitative protocols for impact evaluations. Pro-WEAI covers three major types of agencies: instrumental, intrinsic, and collective. This paper synthesizes the results of 11 mixed-methods evaluations to assess these projects’ empowerment impacts. The projects implemented the pro-WEAI and its associated qualitative protocols in their impact evaluations. Our synthesis finds mixed, and mostly null impacts on aggregate indicators of women’s empowerment, with positive impacts more likely in the South Asian, rather than African, cases. There were more significant impacts on instrumental agency indicators and collective agency indicators, reflecting the group-based approaches used. We found few significant impacts on intrinsic agency indicators, except for those projects that intentionally addressed gender norms. Quantitative analysis does not show an association between the types of strategies that projects implemented and their impacts, except for capacity building strategies. This finding reveals the limitations of quantitative analysis, given the small number of projects involved. The qualitative studies provide more nuance and insight: some base level of empowerment and forms of agency may be necessary for women to participate in project activities, to benefit or further increase their empowerment. Our results highlight the need for projects to focus specifically on empowerment, rather than assume that projects aiming to reach and benefit women automatically empower them. Our study also shows the value of both a common metric to compare empowerment impacts across projects and contexts and qualitative work to understand and contextualize these impacts.
    Keywords: SOUTH ASIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, EAST AFRICA, women's empowerment, gender equality, agriculture, impact assessment, impact evaluation, agricultural development projects
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Gabriela Demarchi (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier, CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]); Caue D Carrilho (USP - Universidade de São Paulo); Thibault Catry (UMR 228 Espace-Dev, Espace pour le développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - AU - Avignon Université - UR - Université de La Réunion - UG - Université de Guyane - UA - Université des Antilles - UM - Université de Montpellier); Stibniati Atmadja (CIFOR - Center for International Forestry Research - CGIAR - Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research [CGIAR]); Julie Subervie (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - UM - Université de Montpellier, INSPÉ Montpellier - Mémoires - Institut national supérieur du professorat et de l'éducation - Académie de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Understanding why forest conservation initiatives succeed or fail is essential to designing cost-effective programs at scale. In this study, we investigate direct and indirect impact mechanisms of a REDD+ project that was shown to be effective in reducing deforestation during the early years of its implementation in the Transamazon region, an area with historically high deforestation rates. Using counterfactual impact evaluation methods applied to survey and remote-sensing data, we assess the impact of the project over 2013-2019, i.e., from its first year until two years after its end. Based on the Theory of Change, we focus on land use and socioeconomic outcomes likely to have been affected by changes in deforestation brought about by the initiative. Our findings highlight that forest conservation came at the expense of pastures rather than cropland and that the project induced statistically greater agrobiodiversity on participating farms. Moreover, we find that the project encouraged the development of alternative livelihood activities that required less area for production and generated increased income. These results suggest that conservation programs, that combine payments conditional on forest conservation with technical assistance and support to farmers for the adoption of low-impact activities, can manage to slow down deforestation in the short term are likely to induce profound changes in production systems, which can be expected to have lasting effects.
    Keywords: REDD+,CO2 emissions,impact evaluation,livelihood,Brazilian Amazon
    Date: 2022–09–19
  3. By: Lassana Toure (Université de Ségou)
    Abstract: Public-private partnership (PPP) projects are important due to the demand for various types of partnerships between the public and private sectors and the growing interest of parties to share experiences. Much of the previous work on PPPs has focused on procurement processes, examining specific issues such as risk management, legal aspects, finance and security planning. However, the training of students in entrepreneurship and knowledge management in PPP projects were not addressed. More specifically, it is about providing an understanding of the need for the sharing of experiences between entrepreneurs and higher education institutions (HEI) as well as on how these exchanges influence the behavior of students vis-à-vis starting a business. This communication begins with a brief background to explain why PPP projects, in the field of higher education, have become necessary and the main economic, technical and political arguments that justify the use of PPP method of starting a business in the field of higher education in developing countries. The methodology consisted of collecting primary data using a questionnaire submitted to 72 students through a random sample of students after a conference given by entrepreneurs. The data was analyzed using descriptive, inferential statistics, and a Logit model to measure the effect of sharing experiences on the decision to become an entrepreneur. The results clearly indicate that the sharing of experiences between entrepreneurs and HEI involving students help the latter to move towards self-employment.
    Abstract: .Les projets de partenariat public-privé (PPP) sont importants en raison de la demande de divers types de partenariat entre les secteurs public et privé et de l'intérêt croissant des parties à partager des expériences. La plupart des travaux précédents sur les PPP se sont concentrés sur les processus de passation des marchés, examinant des questions spécifiques telles que la gestion des risques, les aspects juridiques, les finances et la planification des coûts. Cependant, la formation des étudiants en entrepreneuriat et la gestion des connaissances dans les projets PPP n'ont pas été abordées. En clair, il s'agit, dans cette communication, de fournir une compréhension sur la nécessité du partage d'expériences entre les entrepreneurs et les institutions de l'enseignement supérieur (IES) ainsi que sur la manière dont ces échanges influencent le comportement des étudiants vis-à-vis de la création d'entreprise. Cet article commence par un bref contexte pour expliquer pourquoi les projets PPP, dans le domaine de l'enseignement supérieur, sont devenus nécessaires et les principaux arguments économiques, techniques et politiques qui justifient l'utilisation des PPP comme méthode de création d'entreprise dans les pays en voie de développement. La méthodologie a consisté à collecter des données primaires à l'aide d'un questionnaire soumis à 72 étudiants à travers un échantillonnage aléatoire d'étudiants après une conférence animée par des entrepreneurs. Les données ont été analysées à l'aide de statistiques descriptives, inférentielles et d'un modèle Logit pour mesurer l'effet du partage d'expériences sur la décision de se lancer à l'entrepreneuriat. Les résultats indiquent clairement que les échanges entre les entreprises et les IES impliquant les étudiants des IES aident ces derniers à s'orienter vers l'auto-emploi.
    Keywords: Partenariat public-privé,Enseignement supérieur,Échanges d’expériences,Comportement,Création,Exchange of experiences,Behavior,Business creation.
    Date: 2022–05–31
  4. By: Quismorio, Brenda A.; Lagria, Raymond Freth A.
    Abstract: This paper shows that advanced analytics and traditional statistical techniques on available unstructured and structured data can be utilized to understand the themes put forward in APEC's yearly meetings and how member economies have supported these topics through the conduct of APEC projects. The application of text mining algorithms, such as topic modeling on the proceedings of APEC-level annual meetings, namely, APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM), APEC Annual Ministerial Meeting (AMM), and Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM), generated themes from the text which insight have been discussed. The topic models generated broad themes from AELM+AMM documents and more specific from SOM documents. These generated themes tended to be in the discussion for an average of three consecutive years. The theme observed to be in discussion in the longest (i.e., five consecutive years) was youth and globalization. These generated themes were found to be consistent with the actions APEC has pursued in the past years. Member economies support the policy directions of APEC Economic Leaders and Ministers by implementing projects that are beneficial to the Asia-Pacific region. The 5-Stage APEC Project Cycle ensures that only projects that are aligned to APEC policy directions are approved and encourages collaboration among member economies. A level of support score on weighted project attributes was formulated to rank the 50 topics that categorized the 2,144 APEC projects, which member economies carried out between 2006 and 2020. Based on this score, the top five topics were energy, human resources development, trade facilitation, small and medium enterprises, and standards. The support for energy came mostly from the United States, China, and Japan. Culture was the least supported topic with only one project by one proposing economy. The Philippines sponsored 74 APEC Projects on 26 topics: 12 (or 16%) were on small and medium enterprises (SME); 16 (or 21%) were self-funded, mostly on science and technology (4 projects); 13 (or 18%) were co-sponsored mostly with Chinese Taipei on SME. The Philippines attended all the annual APEC-level meetings and is one of the nine economies that have hosted an APEC year at least twice. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: text mining; topic modeling; APEC meetings; APEC topics; APEC projects
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Panman,Alexandra Patricia; Lozano Gracia,Nancy
    Abstract: Land titling has been a policy priority for developing country cities for decades. In Sub-Saharan Africa and across the world, tenure formalization has been promoted as a tool to improve the quality and value of urban housing. The track record of these projects, however, has generally been disappointing. Why is this? This paper argues that project design has paid too little attention to contextual features of land markets in estimating the benefits of formalization to individual households. The paper draws on evidence from a case study city — Dar es Salaam, Tanzania — to show that in cities where broader property rights institutions are incomplete and informal sources of tenure security are strong, formal property rights may not be valued by households. This raises questions about the households’ willingness to pay for regularization and suggests that complementary strategies to build trust in government and consolidate public benefits of titling will be needed to ensure that projects have a beneficial impact.
    Keywords: Municipal Management and Reform,Urban Housing,Urban Housing and Land Settlements,Urban Governance and Management,Regulatory Regimes,Legislation,Legal Reform,Social Policy,Common Property Resource Development,Legal Products,Judicial System Reform,Agricultural Economics,Hydrology,Energy Policies&Economics
    Date: 2021–03–12

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