nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2022‒07‒25
twelve papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Programme Laboratoires d’Excellence : vers une restructuration radicale du réseau de collaborations By Nicolas Carayol; Emeric Henry
  2. The Discounting Premium Puzzle: Survey evidence from professional economists By Gollier, Christian; Zheng, Jiakun; van der Ploeg, Frederick
  3. Project SPARK Landscape Analysis of Evaluation Technical Assistance to Build the Evaluation Capacity of Human Services and Related Programs By Alexandra Stanczyk; Mary Anne Anderson; Armando Yañez; Lauren Amos
  4. Towards a virtual statecraft: housing targets and the governance of urban housing markets By Raco, Mike; Ward, Callum; Brill, Frances; Sanderson, Danielle; Freire-Trigo, Sonia; Ferm, Jess; Hamiduddin, Iqbal; Livingstone, Nicola
  5. Intermediate cultural places : a specific collective identity ? By Philippe Henry
  6. When can Lotteries improve Public Procurement Processes? By Antonio Estache; Renaud Foucart; Tomas Serebrisky
  7. Workforce Implications of Transitioning to Zero-Emission Buses in Public Transit By Jakovich, Scott; Reeb, Tyler
  8. How infrastructure shapes comparative advantage By Quintana, Luis Baldomero
  9. Linking the ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’ and Smart Specialisation. The Spanish Case By Ana Fernández-Zubieta
  10. EU Innovation Strategies and Mechanisms Applied on National Level By Apostol Mihaela-Gabriela
  11. Linking the ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’ and Smart Specialisation. The Italian Case By PROTA Francesco; VIESTI Gianfranco
  12. The steady effect of knowledge co-creation with universities on business scientific impact throughout the economic cycle By Gómez-Aguayo, Ana María; Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.; Benito-Amat, Carlos

  1. By: Nicolas Carayol (UB - Université de Bordeaux); Emeric Henry (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR)
    Abstract: Financing of academic research clusters is a policy tool that increasingly complements or substitutes for individual grants. In this paper we evaluate such a program, the financing of the Laboratoires d'Excellence (LabEx) in France, comparing the funded proposals to those that were rejected and focusing on projects that received similar grades. We show that (i) the main effect is a complete restructuring of the network of collaborations and in particular an increase in papers co-authored by at least one other member of the cluster (ii) a small but positive effect on productivity (iii) those who benefit most from the funding and increase more their internal links are those not working precisely on the project themes (iv) the program does not promote excellence but rather tends to reduce inequalities in publication levels within the funded clusters.
    Abstract: Les financements de groupements de chercheurs travaillant sur une thématique commune viennent dans beaucoup de pays compléter les financements individuels. Nous évaluons dans ce papier les effets d'un programme de ce type, le financement des Laboratoires d'Excellence (LabEx), en comparant les projets financés à ceux non financés et en se restreignant à ceux ayant reçu une note similaire des évaluateurs. Nous montrons que (i) l'effet principal du financement est de transformer radicalement la structure des collaborations en augmentant le nombre de co-publications entre membres du Labex de plus de 30% ; (ii) l'effet sur la productivité des chercheurs impliqués est positive mais relativement faible ; (iii) ceux qui n'étaient pas au cœur de la thématique initialement bénéficient significativement plus du financement et renforcent le plus leurs collaborations au sein du LabEx ; (iv) le programme LabEx semble moins promouvoir l'excellence que réduire les inégalités au sein des communautés sélectionnées.
    Keywords: Labex,évaluation
    Date: 2020–07
  2. By: Gollier, Christian; Zheng, Jiakun; van der Ploeg, Frederick
    Abstract: We survey the attitude towards the risk-adjustment of efficient discount rates among the economics profession. Three-fourth of our respondents recommend adjusting discount rates to the risk profile of the project under scrutiny, in clear opposition to the standard practice of using a single discount rate in most public administrations around the world. For example, on average, respondents recommend using a larger discount rate for railway infrastructures than for hospitals and climate mitigation. We also observe that the degree of discounting discrimination between obviously different risk profiles remains rather limited in our sample. This generates a ”discounting premium puzzle”: economic experts want to penalize risky public projects much less than financial markets do for private investments. Finally, among experts supporting a single discount rate, there is no consensus about whether it should be based on the average cost of capital in the economy, the sovereign borrowing cost, or the Ramsey rule, yielding disagreement on its level.
    JEL: D81 G11
    Date: 2022–06–27
  3. By: Alexandra Stanczyk; Mary Anne Anderson; Armando Yañez; Lauren Amos
    Abstract: This report proposes a definition of evaluation TA and a conceptual framework for evaluation TA and documents approaches and evidence of promise or effectiveness of evaluation TA initiatives.
    Keywords: evaluation technical assistance, evaluation capacity, human services, temporary assistance for needy families, landscape analysis, literature review, conceptual framework, evaluative thinking, evaluative inquiry, bidirectional learning and co-creation, adult learning, participatory and empowering evaluation, culturally responsive evaluation, evaluation purposes, evaluation life cycle, evaluation designs, needs assessment, technical assistance strategies, evaluation technical assistance approaches, evaluation technical assistance topics
  4. By: Raco, Mike; Ward, Callum; Brill, Frances; Sanderson, Danielle; Freire-Trigo, Sonia; Ferm, Jess; Hamiduddin, Iqbal; Livingstone, Nicola
    Abstract: In this paper we draw on the findings of a mixed methods research project that has examined the production, regulation, and delivery of housing in London. Our aim is to develop fresh insights into the growing mobilisation of numbers and targets in contemporary planning systems. More specifically, we bring two fields of literature into conversation. First, drawing on recent contributions from Pike et al. (2019) we develop their notion of ‘city statecraft or the art of city government and management of state affairs and relations (p.79). We discuss how and why their framing of contemporary urban governance captures current trends in contemporary cities, including: the financialisation of housing and infrastructure; the rolling-out of delivery-focused public private partnerships; and the broader political projects that underpin planning priorities. The paper combines these insights with wider writings in urban studies on virtualism or the analysis of theories and governmental practices that seek to make the world conform to pre-existing ideas, rather than describing and explaining its formation. We argue that target-based forms of governance represent the implementation of a virtual statecraft in which the material realities of actual places become simulated worlds, ripe for calculation and re-making. We show, through in-depth research on housing regulation and investment/development trends in London, the ways in which virtual forms of statecraft are developed and implemented and with what effects on the material outcomes of urban development processes. The findings are of comparative significance as planning systems across Europe and beyond are becoming increasingly focused on market-oriented oriented forms of planning in an effort to boost the production of housing and to deliver social policy outcomes.
    Keywords: housing; London; statecraft; targets; virtualism; ES/S015078/1
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2022–03–01
  5. By: Philippe Henry (Scènes et savoirs - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis)
    Abstract: The term usually used in France to name intermediate places covers a multiplicity of project-spaces with a strong artistic dimension, initiated by actors of civil society pursuing primary goals other than profit-making, without necessarily being considered as cultural institutions. Their essential place – although it is still insufficiently recognized in cultural development – calls for a more precise identification of what they are. The purpose of the present study based on a set of intermediate places is to specify what both brings together and differentiates these project-spaces from the currently highly valued third-places dynamics. The body of this work consists of some two hundred websites of cultural places that signed the charter of the National Coordination of Intermediate and Independent Places. The study shows two types of results. The first one makes it possible to clarify the specific morphology of this set of places, that are nevertheless crossed by significant differences in the way each one has to present, qualify and decline their project, its stakes and the way to achieve them. These differences are partly due to the way in which these experiences were initiated (by a few people, by an already existing organization, by a collective of actors, etc.) and by the cultural approach that has been privileged (live performance and/or visual arts, artistic and/or social dimensions, etc.). The second type of results enables us to sketch out a kind of common identity matrix for these places, each of which remains singular nonetheless. The importance of the artistic issue and the aesthetic question that underlies it, as well as the question of the relations with the populations of the nearby territory, thus largely order the collective identity of these places. In this way, the image of organizations participating in the evolutions of the place of the art in our societies is strengthened, as well as in the development of entrepreneurial forms first structured around the dimensions of sensitivity, meaning and cooperation.
    Abstract: L'appellation usuelle de lieux intermédiaires recouvre en France une multiplicité d'espaces-projets à forte dimension artistique, initiés par des acteurs de la société civile et qui poursuivent des buts premiers autres que lucratifs, sans pour autant relever des institutions culturelles. Leur place essentielle – quoique encore insuffisamment reconnue au titre du développement culturel – appelle à une identification plus précise de ce qu'ils sont. La présente étude vise à préciser, à partir d'un ensemble de ces lieux, ce qui simultanément rapproche et distingue ces espaces-projets de la dynamique actuellement fortement valorisée des tiers-lieux. Le corpus de travail est constitué par quelque deux cents sites Internet de lieux culturels, signataires de la charte de la Coordination nationale des lieux intermédiaires et indépendants. Son étude fait apparaître deux types de résultats. Le premier permet de préciser la morphologie spécifique de cet ensemble de lieux, néanmoins traversé par des différences notables quant à la manière que chacun a de présenter, qualifier et décliner son projet, ses enjeux et la manière de les mettre en œuvre. Pour partie, ces différences tiennent à la façon dont ces expériences ont été initiées (par quelques personnes, par une organisation déjà existante, par un collectif d'acteurs...) et par l'approche culturelle privilégiée (spectacle vivant et/ou arts plastiques, dimensions artistique et/ou sociale...). Le second type de résultats permet d'esquisser une sorte de matrice identitaire générique pour ces lieux, pourtant à chaque fois singuliers. La prégnance de l'enjeu artistique et de la question esthétique qui lui est sous-jacente, aussi bien que la question des relations avec les populations du territoire de proximité ordonnent ainsi largement l'identité collective de ces lieux. Par là, se renforce l'image d'organisations participant aussi bien aux évolutions de la place de l'art dans nos sociétés, qu'au développement de formes entrepreneuriales d'abord structurées autour des dimensions du sensible, du sens et du coopératif.
    Keywords: Cultural third-places,Performing arts,Visual arts,Cultural entrepreneurship,Aesthetics,Tiers-lieu culturel,Spectacle vivant,Arts plastiques,Entrepreneuriat culturel,Esthétique
    Date: 2022–06
  6. By: Antonio Estache; Renaud Foucart; Tomas Serebrisky
    Abstract: We study the feasibility, challenges, and potential benefits of adding a lottery component to standard negotiated and rule-based procurement procedures. For negotiated procedures, we introduce a “discrete lottery” in which local bureaucrats negotiate with a small number of selected bidders and a lottery decides who is awarded the contract. We show that the discrete lottery performs better than a standard negotiated procedure when the pool of firms to choose from is large and corruption is high. For rule-based auction procedures, we introduce a “third-price lottery” in which the two highest bidders are selected with equal probability and the project is contracted at a price corresponding to the third highest bid. We show that the third-price lottery reduces the risks from limited liability and renegotiation. It performs better than a standard second-price or ascending auction when the suppliers’ pool size, the risk of cost overrun, delays and non-delivery of the project are high. The choice between a second-price auction, a third price lottery and a lottery amongst all bidders also depends on the weight placed on producer surplus, including for instance the desire to increase the participation of local SMEs in public sector services markets.
    Keywords: rules, discretion, procurement, lotteries, corruption, auctions
    Date: 2022–06
  7. By: Jakovich, Scott; Reeb, Tyler
    Abstract: This white paper provides educational and policy-driven approaches to sustainable transportation workforce development in the transit sector with a focus on knowledge transfer and training strategies for zero-emission bus technologies. The authors draw from a comprehensive survey of national research, interviews with transit leaders, and case studies to identify the most critical technology transfer gaps in the adoption of zero-emission bus technologies. The paper concludes with strategic transit workforce priorities and related recommendations for transit leaders, educational partners, and policy makers. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Zero-emission, transit, battery-electric, fuel-cell, workforce development, buses, sustainable transportation
    Date: 2022–06–01
  8. By: Quintana, Luis Baldomero
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that domestic trade costs are a source of comparative advantage. First, I build an international trade and internal geography model with transportation features and input-output linkages. Then, I simulate how a large road project, Ruta del Sol, impacts the comparative advantage of Colombia. This road improves access to global markets for heterogeneous regions. My results show that the project shifts the comparative advantage of Colombia towards manufacturing. Industry linkages reinforce this effect. Hence, I confirm that a country’s comparative advantage is shaped by domestic trade costs, in addition to classical determinants like endowments, technology, and institutions. Lastly, my results suggest that road infrastructure is key for the structural transformation of developing nations.
    Keywords: Ciudades, Desarrollo urbano, Economía, Infraestructura, Investigación socioeconómica, Movilidad urbana, Sector público, Transporte,
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Ana Fernández-Zubieta (Complutense University of Madrid - (ICEI-UCM))
    Abstract: This study aims to analyse the alignment of investments in the Spanish ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’ with the Smart Specialisation Strategies priorities (2021-2027) of the country and its regions to identify opportunities for potential synergies and complementary between funding instruments. The structure and methodology follows Marques Santos (2021) approach that has been applied in the Portuguese case study. This methodology uses the information available in the Plan and its annexes and establishes the steps for carrying out a detailed analysis to identify and to classify the investments and actions able to enhance Research and Development and Innovation (R&I) and regional innovation ecosystems. The analysis indicates that up to €20.5 Billion of the Spanish Plan (29% of available funding for 2021-2023) could potentially support directly and indirectly the Smart Specialisation processes in Spain. Similarly to the Portuguese case, the effect of the identified contributions will greatly depend on the final beneficiaries, project selected, absorption capacity, and governance model.
    Keywords: Covid-19 crisis; Innovation; Government Policy; Spain
    JEL: E32 O31 G38
    Date: 2022–06
  10. By: Apostol Mihaela-Gabriela (National School of Political and Administrative Studies, Bucharest, Romania)
    Abstract: The article addresses the topic of innovation strategies and mechanisms used in the Romanian public sector in order to optimize the innovation process within the country, and, at the same time, it focuses on the European Union strategies and mechanisms implemented on a national level. The purpose of this article is to present a framework on the modalities of innovation in the public sector, focusing on innovation strategies, but also on the mechanisms used to achieve the proposed goal. This article is based on the research of scientific papers focusing on innovation, especially on the public sector. The importance of using innovation strategies and mechanisms on a national level needs to be understood because it is through innovation that the demands of the citizens of a state can be met.
    Keywords: innovation, social innovation, public sector, innovation strategy, innovation mechanism, public sector innovation
    Date: 2022–03
  11. By: PROTA Francesco; VIESTI Gianfranco
    Abstract: This study aims at analysing possible synergies between the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan and the Smart Specialisation Strategies for 2021-2027 of Italian regions. Although Smart Specialisation Strategies are not explicitly mentioned in the Plan, we found that sixteen initiatives have a strong link with S3s priority areas, and thirty-one initiatives can be classified as having a medium link. For the remaining initiatives the potential links are weak. Much can be done to increase coherence between S3 and recovery projects, even a posteriori, by considering how the two planning processes complement one another. Obviously, the effective achievement of synergies between the Italian National Recovery and Resilience Plan and the regional Smart Specialisation Strategies will depend on many factors; in particular, a good policy mix and the involvement of relevant regional actors within the governance of the Plan.
    Keywords: Recovery and Resilience Plan; Smart Specialisation Strategies; Covid-19 crisis; Innovation; Public policy; Italy.
    JEL: E32 O31 G38
    Date: 2022–06
  12. By: Gómez-Aguayo, Ana María; Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.; Benito-Amat, Carlos
    Abstract: Economic ups and downs condition science and innovation. The research strength of business firms and their cooperation with universities are important functions of science systems. The aim of this research is to analyse some of the links between business scientific output co-creation and impact throughout the economic cycle. Economic growth increases the probability of firms increasing both their scientific knowledge co-creation output and their scientific impact (during crises), until reaching an inflection point, after which those relationships become negative (during expansions). Co-creation with universities intensifies the scientific impact of firmsâ output; however, although in theory this effect should vary according to the economic phase, the evidence shows that it remains steady. In this study, the theory is grounded through interviews with key university and firm co-authors, and an empirical test is conducted on publications from 15,000 Spanish firms between 2000 and 2016 and their citations â a period which includes the Spanish Great Recession (2008â2014). The analysis suggests that policies to promote business co-creation output with universities should be more stable throughout economic cycle: in expansions, governments should maintain the support for co-creation that is typical of crises; in crises, governments should not expect co-creation with universities to have an even greater positive effect on firmsâ scientific quality than it already has during expansions.
    Date: 2022–07–08

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