nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2022‒01‒03
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Railways as Patient Capital By Oliver Lewis; Avner Offer
  2. Planning, policy and integration for sustainable development of offshore wind energy in Vietnam 2022 -2030 By Minh Ha-Duong; Sven Teske; Dimitri Pescia; Mentari Pujantoro
  3. Accounting for subsistence needs in non-market valuation: A simple proposal By Victor Champonnois; Olivier Chanel
  4. Ranking of different of investment risk in high-tech projects using TOPSIS method in fuzzy environment based on linguistic variables By Mohammad Ebrahim Sadeghi; Hamed Nozari; Hadi Khajezadeh Dezfoli; Mehdi Khajezadeh
  5. Industry 4.0 Technologies in Flexible Manufacturing for Sustainable Organizational Value: Reflections from a Multiple Case Study of Italian Manufacturers By Emanuele Gabriel Margherita; Alessio Maria Braccini
  6. Improving knowledge transfer and collaboration between science and business in Spain By OECD
  7. Reaching for the Stars: When Does Basic Research Collaboration between Firms and Academic Star Scientists Benefit Firm Invention Performance? By Relinde Colen; Rene Belderbos; Stijn Kelchtermans; Bart Leten
  8. Les modèles économiques des associations sportives : le cas des clubs de handball du nord de la France By Pierre-Yves Janssoone; Antoine Feuillet; Mathieu Jéöl

  1. By: Oliver Lewis; Avner Offer
    Abstract: Why are railways mostly in the public sector? Interest rates define a time limit for markets. Projects with longer break-evens cannot be funded by business alone. Corporate ‘franchise’ arrangements overcome the limit by means of revenue guarantees which transfer risks to government. Innovations originate bottom-up in private enterprise. Positive externalities create demand for universal provision but scaling up cannot be financed commercially. In the British railway manias of the 1830s and 1840s speculative fever overwhelmed prudence. Overinvestment left an excessive infrastructure legacy and wiped out windfall profits. In other countries railways required external support. Expanding access give rise to stand-offs with investors which ended up in government regulation or takeover. The tramway boom of 1870 to 1914 followed this pattern, initially with horse power and then electricity. In the UK railway privatisation of the 1990s, the free market delusion was confounded by the infrastructure requirement for long-term commitment.
    Keywords: Railroads, privatisation, project evaluation, public services, scope of government
    Date: 2021–05–01
  2. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sven Teske (UTS - University of Technology Sydney); Dimitri Pescia (Agora Energiewende); Mentari Pujantoro
    Abstract: The wind power sector took off in Vietnam after the feed-in tariff was raised to 8.5 UScents / kWh for onshore projects in 2018. As of March 2021, 113 wind projects with total capacity 6,038MW have signed a power purchase agreement. Most are expected to enter commercial operation before December 2021. We explore here three scenarios for wind power development in Vietnam through 2030. It argues that by 2030 the wind power installed capacity in the New Normal could be around 17 GW onshore and 10 GW offshore. In a Factor Three scenario, offshore wind reaches 21 GW by 2030. This has three policy implications. First, Vietnam's next power development plan provides an important opportunity to increase at low costs the level of ambition of wind power development. Second, flexibility should be the guiding principle of the plan. Third, to realize the large potential of offshore wind power, infrastructure planning has to start soon.
    Keywords: Wind energy,Vietnam,scenarios
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Victor Champonnois (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Olivier Chanel (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Revealed and stated preference techniques are widely used to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for non-market goods as input to public and private decision-making. However, individuals first have to satisfy subsistence needs through market good consumption, which affects their ability to pay. We provide a methodological framework and derive a simple ex post adjustment factor to account for this effect. We quantify its impacts on the WTP for non-market goods and the ranking of projects theoretically, numerically and empirically. This confirms that non-adjusted WTP tends to be plutocratic: the views of the richest-whatever they are-are more likely to impact decision-making, potentially leading to ranking reversal between projects. We also suggest that the subsistence needs-based adjustment factor we propose has a role to play in value transfer procedures. The overall goal is a better representation of the entire population's preferences with regard to non-market goods.
    Keywords: subsistence needs,adjustment factor,non-market valuation,value transfer,population's preferences
    Date: 2021–11–03
  4. By: Mohammad Ebrahim Sadeghi; Hamed Nozari; Hadi Khajezadeh Dezfoli; Mehdi Khajezadeh
    Abstract: Examining the trend of the global economy shows that global trade is moving towards high-tech products. Given that these products generate very high added value, countries that can produce and export these products will have high growth in the industrial sector. The importance of investing in advanced technologies for economic and social growth and development is so great that it is mentioned as one of the strong levers to achieve development. It should be noted that the policy of developing advanced technologies requires consideration of various performance aspects, risks and future risks in the investment phase. Risk related to high-tech investment projects has a meaning other than financial concepts only. In recent years, researchers have focused on identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing risk. There are two important components in measuring investment risk in high-tech industries, which include identifying the characteristics and criteria for measuring system risk and how to measure them. This study tries to evaluate and rank the investment risks in advanced industries using fuzzy TOPSIS technique based on verbal variables.
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Emanuele Gabriel Margherita (Università degli studi della Tuscia [Viterbo]); Alessio Maria Braccini
    Abstract: In this study, we analyse the value creation of Industry 4.0 (I40) technologies in flexible manufacturing (FM) under a sustainability perspective. I40 is a popular strategy that Western manufacturing organizations adopt to face competition from low-cost producers. Organizations adopting I40 use advanced digital technologies to make production processes more flexible and increasingly automated. Several pieces of evidence confirm how I40 leads to higher productivity and higher-quality products, improving the economic performance of organizations. However, increasing automation may also lead to the reduction of human labour in the production process, which may contribute to the disappearance of jobs, the reduction of expertise and the loss of know-how in manufacturing organizations. While the literature acknowledges the technical and economic advantages of I40, the sustainability of the value created through these technologies deserves further investigation. To address the gap, we complement the IT value theory with the concept of sustainability, including the three dimensions of economic, environmental and social sustainability. We perform a multiple case study analysis of four Italian manufacturing organizations that have successfully implemented I40 technologies in FM. The cases show that I40 technologies support sustainable organizational value when they are deployed with a worker-centric approach. In this condition, the organization leverages workforce activities to continuously fine-tune the technologies and to exploit the adaptive features of the technologies to continuously improve processes.
    Keywords: flexible manufacturing,Industry 4.0,sustainability,triple bottom line,social sustainability,multiple case study,technology adoption,IT value,sustainable value
    Date: 2021–07–29
  6. By: OECD
    Abstract: This study provides an in-depth assessment of Spain’s innovation system and the current state of knowledge transfer and collaboration. It identifies five priority areas for reform and long-term investment that should provide the basis of a new Roadmap. These include granting greater operational autonomy to universities and public research organisations in return for accountability on outcomes, putting in place a better integrated system of incentives that takes both individuals and organisations into account, and ensuring sustained investment in core capabilities to connect science and business. To put these reforms in motion and sustain them over time, a new type of covenant between science and society is needed in Spain today. This should be based on a ‘new deal’ between actors in the science and innovation system and society at large, committing to place the pursuit of concrete social benefits in return for more stable and predictable support.
    Keywords: country study, higher education institutions, innovation, innovation policy, intermediation agents, knowledge transfer, public research organisations, science-business collaboration, universities
    JEL: O3 O38 I23
    Date: 2021–12–16
  7. By: Relinde Colen; Rene Belderbos; Stijn Kelchtermans; Bart Leten
    Abstract: While their expertise and scientific excellence make academic star scientists attractive collaboration partners for firms, this study indicates that firms face difficulties in capturing value from collaborations with academic stars. Stars are time constrained, may be less committed to commercialization, and can be a source of undesired knowledge spillovers to other firms. The purpose of this study is to recognize the contingencies under which collaboration with star scientists is positively associated with a firm’s ability to produce valuable patents (invention performance). We analyze a panel dataset on the collaborations in basic research(publication data) and invention performance (patent output) of 60 prominent pharmaceutical firms. We find that basic research collaboration with academic stars is on average not associated with a performance premium above the overall positive influence of collaborating with academia. We only observe this premium if the star scientist abstains from simultaneous collaboration with other firms (‘dedication’) and extend her collaboration with the firm to involvenot only basic but also applied research (‘translation’). Extending prior work that has focused on corporate star scientists, we find that if the collaboration involves an internal firm star scientist, a translational contribution of the academic star is no longer a prerequisite, and may even be detrimental to inventive performance. Our findings inform the literatures on industry-science links and firms’ (scientific) absorptive capacity by revealing the crucial contingencies for firms to benefit from partnering with the best and brightest among academic scientists. Practitioner Points: - Intuitively we may expect that collaborating with the very top among academics benefits firms, yet collaborating with these academic star scientists also entails important challenges. - Organizations seeking to benefit from the extraordinary expertise of academic star scientists should take into account two important conditions: o The top academic should be a dedicated collaboration partner, and avoid simultaneous collaboration with other firms. o The top academic should not only be involved in basic research but also in applied research collaboration with the firm, enhancing her ability to assist the firm in the translation of research into a marketable product. - When the firm also employs a star scientist who is engaged in the collaborative research with an academic star scientist, the translation of the joint research is better performed by the internally employed star scientists instead of the academic star scientist.
    Keywords: university-industry collaboration, knowledge transfer, star scientists
    Date: 2021–11–29
  8. By: Pierre-Yves Janssoone; Antoine Feuillet (Université de Lille); Mathieu Jéöl
    Abstract: The French Handball Federation has put at the heart of its strategic project the will to see its clubs diversify their financial resources and multiply the practice offers (health, leisure...) to remain attractive in a changing sport context. In order to accompany this process, this research focuses on the economic models of handball clubs in order to categorize them and identify development levers. Different statistical methods were applied to achieve this. A principal component analysis and a K-means classification allow us to propose a double taxonomy of the clubs: their economic models and their level of professionalization. These methods were applied to the clubs of the Comité Nord (59 clubs), which were contacted by sending a questionnaire. The reading grid created allows to characterize the current situation of the French handball clubs and to identify different opportunities and threats for each of the identified categories.
    Abstract: La fédération française de handball a mis au cœur de son projet stratégique la volonté de voir ses clubs diversifier leurs ressources financières et multiplier les offres de pratique (santé, loisir…) pour rester attractif dans un contexte sportif en mutation. Afin d'accompagner ce processus, cette recherche s'intéresse aux modèles économiques des clubs de handball dans l'objectif de les catégoriser et d'identifier des leviers de développement. Différentes méthodes statistiques ont été appliquées pour y parvenir. Une analyse en composantes principales (ACP) et une classification K-means permettent de proposer une double taxonomie des clubs : de leurs modèles économiques et de leur niveau de professionnalisation. Ces méthodes sont appliquées aux clubs du Comité Nord (59 clubs) qui ont été sollicités par l'envoi d'un questionnaire. La grille de lecture créée permet de caractériser la situation actuelle des clubs de handball français et d'identifier différentes opportunités et menaces pour chacune des catégories identifiées.
    Date: 2021–11–30

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