nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2021‒12‒13
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Inequality, unemployment, and poverty impacts of mitigation investment: evidence from the CDM in Brazil and implications for a post-2020 mechanism By David Grover; Swaroop Rao
  2. Greater Cohesion In An Increasingly Fractured World: Where Now For The European Project? By Catherine Mathieu; Henri Sterdyniak
  3. Innovation Performance and the Signal Effect: Evidence from a European Program By Aurélien Quignon; Nadine Levratto
  4. Collaboration in Coworking Spaces: Impact on Firm Innovativeness and Business Models By M. Moore
  5. Programme Laboratoires d’Excellence : vers une restructuration radicale du réseau de collaborations By Nicolas Carayol; Emeric Henry
  6. Proof of concept: a lever for the regeneration of health organisations through the development of collective design capacities? By Caroline Jobin; Sophie Hooge; Pascal Le Masson
  7. Designing Services for Youth and Young Adults At-Risk of Homelessness: Key Components of YARH Grantees’ Comprehensive Service Models By Rosalind Keith; Nuzhat Islam; Rumin Sarwar; Cay Bradley
  8. BikewaySim Technology Transfer: City of Atlanta, Georgia By Passmore, Reid; Watkins, Kari E.; Guensler, Randall

  1. By: David Grover (GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management); Swaroop Rao (GEM - Grenoble Ecole de Management, IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - USMB [Université de Savoie] [Université de Chambéry] - Université Savoie Mont Blanc)
    Abstract: Article 6 of the Paris Agreement provides for the creation of a successor to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the parameters of which are currently being operationalised. This paper uses the broad literature on the relationship between general foreign direct investment (FDI) and inequality in FDI host countries to develop expectations about the likely impact of past and future international mitigation investment on inequality, unemployment and poverty outcomes. Using 2000 and 2010 census data for small geographic areas in Brazil, we compare the change in those outcomes in areas that experienced CDM project activity to the same in areas that did not, using a difference-indifference approach. We find that areas with CDM project activity experienced improvements in those outcomes, which appear to be driven by project types that are associated with 'primary' sector activity. Including measurement and reporting procedures for these broader sustainable development outcomes in the rulebook of a post-2020 agreement could be favourable to the interests of both developed and developing countries.
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Catherine Mathieu (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Henri Sterdyniak (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: "Greater cohesion in an increasingly fractured world: Where now for the European project?". This was the theme of the 16th EUROFRAME Conference on economic policy issues in the European Union, which was held on 7 June 2019 in Dublin. EUROFRAME is a network of European economic institutes that includes: DIW Berlin and IfW Kiel (Germany), WIFO (Austria), ETLA (Finland), OFCE (France), ESRI (Ireland), PROMETEIA (Italy), CPB (Netherlands), CASE (Poland) and the NIESR (United Kingdom). Since 2004, EUROFRAME has organized an annual conference on an important subject for Europe's economies. In 2019, 27 researchers made presentations, most of which are available on the conference website. This article provides a summary of the work presented and discussed during the conference.
    Keywords: European Project,Economic policy issues,Conference
    Date: 2020–09
  3. By: Aurélien Quignon; Nadine Levratto
    Abstract: This paper seeks to estimate the effect of a European policy that subsidizes innovation investments. By carefully selecting observables, we compare recipients of the program with non-recipient firms to overcome the endogeneity of R&D grants. We conduct a difference-in-differences design on the universe of a unique firm-level dataset of European SMEs between 2008 and 2017. We find a significant effect of proof of concept grants, which implies an increase in the number of patentapplications and the probability of patenting. There are positive impacts on credit financing, which suggest a signal effect to investors about the project quality of young firms.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, Innovation, Patent, Financing constraints, H2020
    JEL: G28 G32 O30 O38
    Date: 2021
  4. By: M. Moore
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate as to whether collaboration in coworking spaces contributes to firm innovativeness and impacts the business models of organizations in a positive manner. Methodology: This paper includes primary data from 75 organizations in 17 coworking spaces and uses quantitative research methods. The methodology includes multiple statistical methods, such as principal component analysis, correlation analysis as well as linear and binary regression analysis. Results: The results show a positive interrelation between collaboration and innovation, indicating that coworkers are able to improve their innovative capabilities by making use of strategic partnerships in coworking spaces. Further, this study shows that business models are significantly affected by the level of collaboration in coworking spaces, which suggests that coworking is a promoting force for business model development or business model innovation. Contributions: The paper contributes to management literature and represents the first empirical investigations which focuses on the effects of collaboration on a firm-level in coworking spaces. Practical implications: The results indicate that organizations in coworking spaces should embrace a collaborative mindset and should actively seek out collaborative alliances and partnerships, as doing such is shown to increase their innovativeness and/or develop their business model. Future Research: Future research should focus on the antecedents of collaboration or could investigate the effects of collaboration in coworking spaces on a community level.
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Nicolas Carayol (UB - Université de Bordeaux); Emeric Henry (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR)
    Abstract: Financing of academic research clusters is a policy tool that increasingly complements or substitutes for individual grants. In this paper we evaluate such a program, the financing of the Laboratoires d'Excellence (LabEx) in France, comparing the funded proposals to those that were rejected and focusing on projects that received similar grades. We show that (i) the main effect is a complete restructuring of the network of collaborations and in particular an increase in papers co-authored by at least one other member of the cluster (ii) a small but positive effect on productivity (iii) those who benefit most from the funding and increase more their internal links are those not working precisely on the project themes (iv) the program does not promote excellence but rather tends to reduce inequalities in publication levels within the funded clusters.
    Abstract: Les financements de groupements de chercheurs travaillant sur une thématique commune viennent dans beaucoup de pays compléter les financements individuels. Nous évaluons dans ce papier les effets d'un programme de ce type, le financement des Laboratoires d'Excellence (LabEx), en comparant les projets financés à ceux non financés et en se restreignant à ceux ayant reçu une note similaire des évaluateurs. Nous montrons que (i) l'effet principal du financement est de transformer radicalement la structure des collaborations en augmentant le nombre de co-publications entre membres du Labex de plus de 30% ; (ii) l'effet sur la productivité des chercheurs impliqués est positive mais relativement faible ; (iii) ceux qui n'étaient pas au cœur de la thématique initialement bénéficient significativement plus du financement et renforcent le plus leurs collaborations au sein du LabEx ; (iv) le programme LabEx semble moins promouvoir l'excellence que réduire les inégalités au sein des communautés sélectionnées.
    Keywords: Labex,évaluation
    Date: 2020–07
  6. By: Caroline Jobin (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sophie Hooge (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The challenges of contemporary innovation – particularly in the health sector – call for a new transformation of organisations and, more broadly, of socio-technical systems. One lever for regenerating these organisations is the establishment of a regime of repeated and sustainable innovation. Through a unique case study, we explore the ability of proofs of concept (POC) to contribute to the development of collective design capabilities to support this regime. This case study is based on a design project entitled "rethinking medical emergency for elderly patients with loss of autonomy and patients with disability". It was carried out by the Research Chair in Philosophy at the Hospital and the design agency les Sismo, and financially supported by the French National Solidarity Fund for Autonomy (CNSA). Our analytical framework describing design-oriented organisational capacities has the virtue of outlining the plurality of forms that these collective design capacities can take, and of the actors who express and develop them thanks to the POC in a training-action type modality. The POC should be used as a "flash" method to validate value hypotheses, but also to develop and explore the organisational conditions (knowledge, skills, legitimacy, ...) that are missing to continue the collective design process, and thus initiate the regeneration of the organisation. Our study also underlines the methodological limits of POC in this mission, notably that of restricting the exploration to a few design alternatives, and moreover alternatives for which the experimental fields are already known and easily accessible. To identify and control the risk of fuelling a regime of "orphan innovation", we recommend that POC managers produce a Concept-Knowledge (C-K) design framework.
    Abstract: Les enjeux d'innovation contemporain – notamment dans le secteur de la santé – appellent à une transformation nouvelle des organisations, et plus largement des systèmes sociotechniques. Un levier de régénération de ces organisations est l'instauration d'un régime d'innovation répétée et durable. Au travers d'une étude de cas unique, nous explorons l'aptitude des preuves de concept (POC) à contribuer au développement de capacités de conception collective permettant de soutenir ce régime. Cette étude de cas s'appuie sur un projet de design intitulé « repenser les urgences pour les patients âgés en perte d'autonomie et en situation de handicap ». Il a été porté par la Chaire de philosophie à l'hôpital et l'agence de design les Sismo, et soutenu financièrement par la Caisse nationale de solidarité pour l'autonomie (CNSA). Notre cadre d'analyse décrivant des capacités organisationnelles orientées conception a la vertu d'esquisser la pluralité des formes que peuvent prendre ces capacités de conception collective, et des acteurs qui les expriment et les développent grâce au POC selon une modalité de type formation-action. Le POC doit être utilisé comme une méthode « éclair » pour valider des hypothèses de valeur, mais aussi pour développer et explorer les conditions organisationnelles (connaissances, compétences, légitimités, …) manquantes pour poursuivre le processus de conception collective, et donc amorcer la régénération de l'organisation. Notre étude souligne également les limites méthodologiques du POC dans cette mission, notamment celle de restreindre l'exploration à quelques alternatives de conception, qui plus est des alternatives pour lesquelles les terrains d'expérimentation sont déjà connus et faciles d'accès. Pour identifier et contrôler le risque d'alimenter ainsi un régime d'« innovation orpheline », nous recommandons aux managers de POC de réaliser un référentiel de conception Concept-Knowledge (C-K).
    Keywords: Proof of concept POC,Innovation regime,Design-oriented organisation,Collective design capabilities,Hospital,Emergency,Preuve de concept,Régime d’innovation,Organisation orientée conception,Capacités de conception collective,Hôpital,Urgences
    Date: 2021–11–24
  7. By: Rosalind Keith; Nuzhat Islam; Rumin Sarwar; Cay Bradley
    Abstract: This brief summarizes strategies the grantees in the Youth At-Risk of Homelessness Project (YARH) used from 2015-2019 that supported implementation of their comprehensive service models, as well as other factors that facilitated implementation.
    Keywords: Youth, homelessness, YARH, implementation, services, policy
  8. By: Passmore, Reid; Watkins, Kari E.; Guensler, Randall
    Abstract: Bicycle transportation is often excluded from travel demand and route choice models. Even when bicycle modes are incorporated, models may use a simplified network that does not contain all streets and bicycle paths that a cyclist could feasibly take. These models may also only use trip distance and travel time when modelling a cycling trip; research on revealed route choice preferences of cyclists has shown that cyclist routing is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a bicycle facility or road elevation gain. The City of Atlanta plans to triple its mileage of protected bicycle infrastructure in the next two years, and needs a tool to be able to plan and prioritize these projects based on the estimated effects on bicycle accessibility, bicycle mode share, energy usage, and emissions, to make the best use of the limited funding. The objective of this project is to develop this analytical tool and an associated network that includes all possible bicycle paths (i.e., roads, bicycle paths, cut-through paths, etc.) for a 12 square mile study area in the City of Atlanta that can be expanded later to the Atlanta Metro area. The tool, BikewaySim, is a shortest path calculator that uses Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm to find both the preferred route from any origin to any destination within the study area using lowest travel time and lowest total impedance cost. The BikewaySim network was created by conflating network data from the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC), OpenStreetMap (OSM), and HERE into a whole road and pathway for BikewaySim and future use in the ARC’s activity-based travel demand model. The methods for conflating networks and developing the shortest path model are publicly available resources. The final model is destined to include all viable pathways and incorporate cyclist preferences for use in planning and modelling bicycle travel for research, planning, and design. The framework allows other organizations and researchers to contribute to the project over time. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Bicycle route choice, network conflation, bicycle facility preference
    Date: 2021–12–01

This nep-ppm issue is ©2021 by Arvi Kuura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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