nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2021‒11‒22
nine papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. A project-level approach to green open innovation By Lorena D'Agostino
  2. Strategic planning of investments in the development of motorways and first class roads from the perspective of economic evaluation By Pavel Krupík
  3. A Model of Challenge Funds: How Funding Availability and Selection Rigor Affect Project Quality By Raphael Boleslavsky; Bruce Carlin; Christopher Cotton
  4. Upscaling energy efficiency via energy communities By Jan Pojar; Jakub Kvasnica
  5. Promote or Inhibit?the Effects of Forest Carbon Sinks Projects on Agricultural Development: Evidence from Sichuan, China. By Hu, Yuan; Kuhn, Lena; Zheng, Wenxue
  6. Challenges for University - Industry Collaboration - a Stakeholder View By Ulrike Michel-Schneider
  7. Promoting inclusive education for diverse societies: A conceptual framework By Lucie Cerna; Cecilia Mezzanotte; Alexandre Rutigliano; Ottavia Brussino; Paulo Santiago; Francesca Borgonovi; Caitlyn Guthrie
  8. Mobilizing innovation for sustainability transitions: a comment on transformative innovation policy By Jan Fagerberg
  9. Accounting for subsistence needs in non-market valuation: A simple proposal By Victor Champonnois; Olivier Chanel

  1. By: Lorena D'Agostino (University of Milano-Bicocca)
    Abstract: Innovation is a crucial dimension for the transition to a greener Europe, a process that has accelerated notably in the latest years. An open mode has been applied to those innovation that mitigate the impact of economic activities on the natural environment, which is green open innovation (GOI). This is approach is mainly driven by the importance of stakeholders and the specificity of environmental fields, which call for a greater role of the external collaboration in green innovation. Although the interest of management scholars and practitioners in GOI has increased enormously, the empirical GOI literature has overlooked a project-level approach. Firms may have heterogenous openness across different projects depending on the characteristics of the projects or the strategic objective of the firm. This paper contributes to GOI literature by investigating whether green projects are more open than non-green projects in terms of breadth and depth of knowledge sources. Based on a dataset of projects funded by Seventh European research framework, the results confirm the greater openness of environmental-related research projects. These results corroborate the necessity for managers to apply an open mode to green innovation, especially in highly competitive calls such as the European Union framework program.
    Keywords: green open innovation; eco-innovation; sustainability; EU framework programs; FP7; projects; breadth; depth; openness.
    JEL: M20 O32 Q56
    Date: 2021–10
  2. By: Pavel Krupík (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering)
    Abstract: The subject of this article is to describe how strategic planning of investments in the development of motorways and class I roads is currently carried out and what role economic evaluation plays in this process. The author uses data from 2014 to 2020 from the investor, the Road and Motorway Directorate of the Czech Republic. The author of this article would like to point out that from the point of view of strategic planning, the preparation of an economic evaluation is not a single and self-sufficient indicator. Certainly, it will give a hint whether or not to implement a project at all, but it does not help to determine which of the two projects to choose if the investor has limited finances.
    Keywords: Strategic planning, economic evaluation, motorways, first class roads
    JEL: R42
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Raphael Boleslavsky (University of Miami); Bruce Carlin (UCLA); Christopher Cotton (Queen's University)
    Abstract: Challenge funds (CF) induce competition between grant applicants as they develop proposals to address important social problems. We develop a game-theoretic model to study how funding availability and proof of concept requirements (e.g., pilots or other forms of early-stage screening) influence investments by applicants and the ultimate success of the CF. Larger budgets and more rigorous proof of concept requirements can reduce applicant investments and lead to less effective funding initiatives. The results show how the design of a CF affects the incentives of those competing for funding, and how the most effective CF design needs to carefully consider how the NGOs or researchers applying for funding will respond to a change in incentives. Otherwise, steps taken to improve the quantity or quality of funded projects can backfire and decrease overall funding effectiveness.
    Keywords: Challenge Funds, Grants, Project Evaluation, Pilot Studies, Funding Allocation, Evidence Based Funding
    JEL: D83 O22 O35 H57 H83 H87 H43
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Jan Pojar (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering); Jakub Kvasnica (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering)
    Abstract: The European Union promotes the concept of energy communities as a tool for achieving ambitious goals in decarbonisation of the European economy. Potentially, energy communities can bring multiple benefits; they are seen as a way for more efficient power sharing and decentralization and decarbonisation of energy generation as well as increasing locally produced renewable energy.The aim of the article is to examine establishing and operation of energy communities in the context of the Czech Republic. The article explores current and upcoming legislation on energy communities, the first of its kind that would set the regulatory framework for energy communities for a foreseeable future.The article describes case studies of energy communities with regard to their implementation in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Case studies focus on technical solutions for modern and renewable energy sources suitable for operation in energy communities.The article concludes with a summary of barriers, e.g. in the field of property rights and their possible solutions, and benefits of energy communities implementation, such as better distribution of investment costs and the possibility of implementing larger projects, subsequent savings in energy costs, facilitation of renewable energy sources and decentralization of energy production.The article also discusses the necessary steps for removing the barriers, which would subsequently accelerate the implementation of energy communities.
    Keywords: Energy community; Energy production; Energy generation; Energy Decentralization; Decarbonisation
    JEL: D00 Q42 Q43
    Date: 2021–10
  5. By: Hu, Yuan; Kuhn, Lena; Zheng, Wenxue
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Agribusiness
    Date: 2021–08
  6. By: Ulrike Michel-Schneider (Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering)
    Abstract: Purpose - The innovation strategies of the European Union and its member states have been well established over time and their implementation is being supported through government funding and legislative policies. This includes the promotion of strategic University-Industry Collaboration (UIC) involving its heterogeneous stakeholder groups. The purpose of this paper is to provide a shareholder analysis in form of defining the UIC activities, UIC shareholders and their interests and power in such collaboration while addressing the major challenges.Methodology ? A comprehensive thematic literature review of scientific research, as well as institutionally conducted research (primarily by European Union organisations) has been performed.Findings ? The review lays out the interest and power of the individual stakeholders while members of Academia, Industry and Government being the most influential ones. The primary challenges for Academia and Industry remain access to funding, however, also the tackling of contrary mindsets and mission as well as overcoming organisational and cultural differences create serious barriers to a successful cooperation.Practical Implication: Preparing a shareholder analysis in the area of UIC and deriving with a thorough understanding of the shareholders motivation and power of UIC involvement will help prioritizing and managing the stakeholders, as well as help leading a successful cooperation. Originality/value: This study is meaningful in that it serves as a practical overview in considering the interests and challenges in form of a stakeholder analysis of a UIC setting. It may serve as a guide for stakeholders interested in formalizing UICs to understand the weight, importance and motivation of their immediate collaborators, when preparing a formal UIC partnership.
    Keywords: Stakeholder Analysis, University-Industry Cooperation, Innovation Strategy
    JEL: O00 O30 O33
    Date: 2021–10
  7. By: Lucie Cerna (OECD); Cecilia Mezzanotte (OECD); Alexandre Rutigliano; Ottavia Brussino (OECD); Paulo Santiago (OECD); Francesca Borgonovi (OECD); Caitlyn Guthrie (OECD)
    Abstract: In many countries, schools and classrooms are becoming increasingly diverse along a variety of dimensions, including migration; ethnic groups, national minorities and Indigenous peoples; gender; gender identity and sexual orientation; special education needs; and giftedness. To navigate this diversity, adopting a multidimensional and intersectional lens could help education systems promote equity and inclusion in education and foster the well-being and learning of all students. Such an approach could also support education systems in preparing all individuals so that they can engage with others in increasingly complex and diverse societies. To build equitable and inclusive education systems, analysing policy issues regarding governance arrangements, resourcing schemes, capacity building, school-level interventions, and monitoring and evaluation is key. The Strength through Diversity: Education for Inclusive Societies project seeks to help governments and education systems address diversity to achieve more equitable and inclusive education systems. This paper presents the project’s theoretical and analytical framework.
    Date: 2021–11–18
  8. By: Jan Fagerberg (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: The topics addressed in this paper concern the (much-needed) transition to sustainability and what role (innovation) policy can play in speeding up such changes. In their Discussion Paper Schot and Steinmueller (this issue) argue that the existing theorizing and knowledge bases within the field of innovation studies are “unfit” for this task and that a totally new approach is required. This paper takes issue with this claim. Policy advice, it is argued, needs to be anchored in the accumulated research on the issue at hand, in this case, innovation. The paper therefore starts by distilling some important insights on innovation from the accumulated research on this topic and, with this in mind, considers various policy approaches that have been suggested for influencing innovation and sustainability transitions. Finally, the lessons for the development and implementation of transformative innovation policy are considered. It is concluded that the existing theorizing and knowledge base in innovation studies may be of great relevance when designing policies for dealing with climate change and sustainability transitions.
    Date: 2021–11
  9. By: Victor Champonnois (UMR G-EAU, Montpellier, France.); Olivier Chanel (Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France.)
    Abstract: Revealed and stated preference techniques are widely used to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for non-market goods as input to public and private decision-making. However, individuals first have to satisfy subsistence needs through market good consumption, which affects their ability to pay. We provide a methodological framework and derive a simple ex post adjustment factor to account for this effect. We quantify its impacts on the WTP for non-market goods and the ranking of projects theoretically, numerically and empirically. This confirms that non-adjusted WTP tends to be plutocratic: the views of the richest-whatever they are-are more likely to impact decision-making, potentially leading to ranking reversal between projects. We also suggest that the subsistence needs-based adjustment factor we propose has a role to play in value transfer procedures. The overall goal is a better representation of the entire population's preferences with regard to non-market goods.
    Keywords: subsistence needs; adjustment factor; non-market valuation; value transfer; population's preferences
    JEL: D60 D70 Q51
    Date: 2021–11

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