nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2021‒11‒15
nine papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. All for One and One for Green Energy: Community Renewable Investments in Europe By Valeriya Azarova; Jed Cohen; Andrea Kollmann; Johannes Reichl
  2. Technology and Technical Efficiency Gaps Correcting for Selectivity Bias: A Preliminary Analysis from a VALUE Chain Project in Nepal By Neubauer, Florian; Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Zegarra, Joanna Kámiche; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.
  3. How to spend it By Jérôme Creel; Mario Holzner; Francesco Saraceno; Andrew Watt; Jérôme Wittwer
  4. EU in the global Artificial Intelligence landscape By RIGHI Riccardo; LOPEZ COBO Montserrat; SAMOILI Sofia; CARDONA Melisande; VAZQUEZ-PRADA BAILLET Miguel; DE PRATO Giuditta
  5. Optimal teleworking agreements vs. yearning for normality when vaccine is on the horizon By Jacek Rothert
  6. Do Carbon Offsets Offset Carbon? By Raphael Calel; Jonathan Colmer; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Matthieu Glachant
  7. Does the geographic clustering of universities promote their scientific research performance? Evidence from China By Chu, Shuai; Wu, Mengfei
  8. Developing states and the green challenge. A dynamic approach By Alexandra-Anca Purcel
  9. Cross-Border Institutions and the Globalization of Innovation By Bian, Bo; Meier, Jean-Marie; Xu, Ting

  1. By: Valeriya Azarova; Jed Cohen; Andrea Kollmann; Johannes Reichl
    Abstract: A crucial part of the recently adopted “Fit for 55” package of the European Commission is devoted to the transition to a greener energy system. More specifically, the amendment to the Renewable Energy Directive sets up an increased target to produce 40% of energy from renewable sources by 2030. Hence, encouraging private investments in renewable generation capacity is becoming even more imperative to reach the ambitious climate-neutrality goals of the EU and to make the European Green Deal a reality. In this context, a pertinent design and endorsement of community renewable energy (CRE) projects may play a crucial role. A recent study based on a survey administered across 31 European nations, shows that there is high interest across Europe in CRE investment models, with 79% of respondents choosing to invest in at least one of the eight investment scenarios shown to them. Yet, operational details matter: e.g. administration through a local community organization is preferred to being administrated by an utility company. On top of that, highlighting local economic benefits, such as job creation from CRE projects, improves participation more so than highlighting general environmental benefits.
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Neubauer, Florian; Songsermsawas, Tisorn; Zegarra, Joanna Kámiche; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Jérôme Creel (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Mario Holzner; Francesco Saraceno (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Andrew Watt; Jérôme Wittwer (BPH - Bordeaux population health - INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale - Institut de Santé Publique, d'Épidémiologie et de Développement (ISPED) - UB - Université de Bordeaux)
    Abstract: ■The Recovery Fund recently proposed by the EU Commission marks a sea-change in European integration. Yet it will not be enough to meet the challenges Europe faces. There has been much public debate about financing, but little about the sort of concrete projects that the EU should be putting public money into.■Here we propose a 10-year, €2tn investment programme focusing on public health, transport infrastructure and energy/decarbonisation. ■It consists of two pillars. In a national pillar Member States — broadly as in theCommission proposal — would be allocated €500bn. Resources should be focused on the hardest-hit countries and front-loaded: we suggest over a three-year horizon.■The bulk of the money —€1.5tn — would be devoted to finance genuinely European projects, where there is an EU value added. We describe a series of flagship initiatives that the EU could launch in the fields of public health, transport infrastructure and energy/decarbonisation. ■We call for a strengthened EU public health agency that invests in health-staff skillsand then facilitates their flexible deployment in emergencies, and is tasked withensuring supplies of vital medicines (Health4EU). ■We present costed proposals for two ambitious transport initiatives: a dedicated European high-speed rail network, the Ultra-Rapid-Train, with four-routes cuttingtravel times between EU capitals and regions, and, alternatively, an integrated European Silk Road initiative that combines transport modes on the Chinese model. ■In the area of energy/decarbonisation we seek to "electrify" the Green Deal. We call for funding to accelerate the realisation of a smart and integrated electricity gridfor 100%-renewable energy transmission (e-highway), support for complementary battery and green-hydrogen projects, and a programme, modelled on the SURE initiative, to co-finance member-state decarbonisation and Just Transition policies.■The crisis induced by the pandemic, coming as it does on top of the financial and euro crises, poses a huge challenge. The response needs to take account of the longer-run structural challenges, and above all that of climate change. The European Union should rise to these challenges in the reform of an ambitious medium-runrecovery programme, appropriately financed. An outline of such a programme isset out here by way of illustration, but many permutations and options are available to policymakers.
    Keywords: Covid-19,European recovery programme
    Date: 2020–06–18
  4. By: RIGHI Riccardo (European Commission - JRC); LOPEZ COBO Montserrat (European Commission - JRC); SAMOILI Sofia (European Commission - JRC); CARDONA Melisande (European Commission - JRC); VAZQUEZ-PRADA BAILLET Miguel (European Commission - JRC); DE PRATO Giuditta (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The brief presents the results of the AI worldwide ecosystem analysis for the period 2009-2020, by applying the Techno-Economic ecoSystem (TES) analytical approach. The TES approach allows to map the AI worldwide ecosystem by considering the main AI-related industrial, innovation and research activities, and all the economic players that are involved in them (i.e. firms, research institutes, governmental institutions). The brief analyses the position of the EU in the international context, via-à-vis the United States, China, and other main players in the landscape, in terms of size of the AI ecosystem, specialisation in AI areas, AI firms and AI R&D capacities. It follows with an in-depth analysis of the EU ecosystem, with a section devoted to the impact of EC-funded projects on the EU AI ecosystem.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence, ecosystem, ai firms, ai R&D
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Jacek Rothert (United States Naval Academy; Group for Research in Applied Economics (GRAPE))
    Abstract: During a pandemic, companies may adopt teleworking agreements even if they lower current productivity. If managers (or policymakers) want to project an image of ``return to normality'', completely orthogonal to any economic or health outcomes, the scope of teleworking agreements is lower but constant in a stationary equilibrium. In response to the news about upcoming vaccine, rational managers always increase the scope of teleworking agreements, unless the desire to project the image of ``return to normality'' is sufficiently strong, effectively creating a reopening-smoothing motive. The ``return to normality'' may be premature if managers do not understand Lucas' Critique.
    Keywords: Covid-19; teleworking; Lucas' Critique; alternative working arrangements
    JEL: I19 M5
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Raphael Calel; Jonathan Colmer; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Matthieu Glachant
    Abstract: We develop and implement a new method for identifying wasted subsidies, and use it to provide systematic evidence on the misallocation of carbon offsets in the Clean Development Mechanism—the world’s largest carbon offset program. Using newly constructed data on the locations and characteristics of 1,350 wind farms in India—a context where it was believed, ex ante, that the Clean Development Mechanism could significantly increase development above baseline projections—we estimate that at least 52% of approved carbon offsets were allocated to projects that would very likely have been built anyway. In addition to wasting scarce resources, we estimate that the sale of these offsets to regulated polluters has substantially increased global carbon dioxide emissions.
    Keywords: carbon offsets, infra-marginal support, subsidies, investment, wind power, misallocation
    JEL: H23 H43 L94 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Chu, Shuai; Wu, Mengfei
    Abstract: The fundamental purpose of university geographic clustering is to gather resources through "agglomeration" to improve the performance of higher education and scientific research. However, it has been debated whether university clusters can achieve the latter goal. With the help of the “quasi-experiment” of Chinese "University Towns" project in the 1990s, this study determines the impact of university clusters on scientific research performance. Panel data of 2000 colleges and universities from 1993 to 2017 in the compilation of scientific and technical statistics of Chinese higher education and time-varying difference in differences method are used. The results show that the cluster of colleges and universities have a significant negative impact on the scientific research performance due to technological dis-proximity and rising commuting costs. And the clustering effect is related to the number of participating schools and the level of the university. Therefore, university clustering cannot effectively promote the performance of scientific research and unable to bring agglomeration economies.
    Keywords: University cluster,Economies of agglomeration,Scientific research performance,Time-varying difference in differences method
    JEL: I23 O38 O53
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Alexandra-Anca Purcel (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of output, urbanization, energy intensity, and renewable energy on aggregated and sector-specific CO2 emissions for a rich sample of developing states. We employ the recently developed GMM panel VAR technique, which allows us to tackle the potential endogeneity issue and capture both the current and future impact of indicators on CO2 via the impulse-response analysis. On the one hand, robust to several alternative specifications, the findings indicate that output, urbanization, and energy intensity increase the aggregated CO2 emissions, while renewable energy exhibits an opposite effect. Moreover, regarding the CO2 responsiveness to output and urbanization shocks, the pattern may suggest that these countries are likely to attain the threshold that would trigger a decline in CO2 emissions. We also reveal heterogeneities related to both countries' economic development and Kyoto Protocol ratification/ascension status. On the other hand, the sectoral analysis unveils that the transportation, buildings, and non-combustion sector tend to contribute more to increasing the future CO2 levels. Overall, our study may provide useful insights concerning environmental sustainability prospects in developing states.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions,urbanization,energy efficiency,renewable energy,developing countries,environmental Kuzents curve,GMM panel VAR
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Bian, Bo; Meier, Jean-Marie; Xu, Ting
    Abstract: We identify strong cross-border institutions as a driver for the globalization of in-novation. Using 67 million patents from over 100 patent offices, we introduce novel measures of innovation diffusion and collaboration. Exploiting staggered bilateral in-vestment treaties as shocks to cross-border property rights and contract enforcement, we show that signatory countries increase technology adoption and sourcing from each other. They also increase R&D collaborations. These interactions result in techno-logical convergence. The effects are particularly strong for process innovation, and for countries that are technological laggards or have weak domestic institutions. Increased inter-firm rather than intra-firm foreign investment is the key channel.
    Keywords: Innovation,technology diffusion,globalization,cross-border institutions,bilateral investment treaties
    JEL: F21 F61 G18 G38 K33 O31 O33
    Date: 2021

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