nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2021‒09‒27
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. A Methodological Framework to Support the Sustainable Innovation Development Process : A Collaborative Approach By Martha Orellano; Christine Lambey-Checchin; Khaled Medini; Gilles Neubert
  2. The Accessibility Shift: Conceptual Obstacles and How to Overcome (One of) Them By Jonathan Levine
  3. Evaluating the Robustness of Project Performance under Deep Uncertainty of Climate Change: A Case Study of Irrigation Development in Kenya By Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
  4. Financing Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Botswana Through the Capital Market By Kelesego Mmolainyane
  5. La PAC au service des collectifs agricoles : enseignements de projets agroécologiques innovants By Pauline Lécole; Marc Moraine
  6. Feasibility of creating an EU database on working condition clauses in collective bargaining agreements. The case of gender. By Kadija Charni; Nathalie Greenan; Janna Besamusca
  7. Science and innovations in Russia in 2020 By Dezhina Irina

  1. By: Martha Orellano; Christine Lambey-Checchin (CleRMa - Clermont Recherche Management - ESC Clermont-Ferrand - École Supérieure de Commerce (ESC) - Clermont-Ferrand - UCA [2017-2020] - Université Clermont Auvergne [2017-2020]); Khaled Medini; Gilles Neubert
    Abstract: The notion of sustainable innovation (SI) emerged recently in the academic literature and evokes deep changes in organizations' products, processes, and practices to favour the creation of social and environmental value in addition to economic returns. The development of SI implies a collaborative process that requires the orchestration of several actors and streams of knowledge to be successful. Indeed, companies adopting the SI path need structured methodologies to guide the collaboration process with internal and external actors and support the decision process. Nevertheless, the literature has focused on the analysis of determinants and drivers of sustainable innovation development, while the process perspective has been discussed less. Through an in-depth case study in a large-sized company in France, this article proposes a methodological framework to guide the collaborative process in the early phases of sustainable innovation development. The framework relies on a combination of qualitative research and a multicriteria decision aiding method (AHP). The contributions of this work address two main aspects: (i) the conceptualization of sustainable innovation (SI) and (ii) the collaborative process between internal and external actors to develop SI. Firstly, our study leads to two additional dimensions to complete the concept of SI, traditionally based on the three pillars of sustainability (economic, environmental, and social), by adding the functional and relational dimensions. Secondly, concerning the collaborative process to develop SI, our framework proposes a structured methodology following five steps: definition of the project scope, setting actors' motivations, defining satisfaction criteria, proposing SI solutions, and performing a decision-aiding process to define the preference profiles of the key actors.
    Keywords: case study research,decision-aiding,collaboration,customer-driven innovation,G. A Methodological Framework to Support the Sustainable Innovation Development Process: A Collaborative Approach sustainable innovation,Neubert,K.,Medini,Orellano,C.,Lambey-Checchin,M.
    Date: 2021–08–12
  2. By: Jonathan Levine (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: This paper explores conceptual barriers to shifting the foundation of transport planning from mobility to accessibility. These barriers include an implicit belief that accessibility must bring other benefits to be of value, the idea that individuals’ failure to minimise costs in their transport choices somehow challenges the derived nature of transport demand; and a lack of techniques for project-level accessibility analysis. The paper also presents a technique for overcoming the latter barrier.
    Date: 2020–11–19
  3. By: Daiju Narita; Ichiro Sato; Daikichi Ogawada; Akiko Matsumura
    Abstract: While financing for climate adaptation projects is gaining prominence worldwide, the methods of performance evaluation of adaptation-related projects have not as yet been established. One reason for this is that future project effects are subject to deep uncertainty. As a case study of the evaluation of adaptation benefits under the uncertainty of climate change, we evaluate the robustness of the project performance of a Kenyan irrigation development project. Based on a simulation analysis carried out using the Robust Decision Making (RDM) approach, we assess the robustness of the positive expected outcomes of the project and find that the development of irrigation facilities, especially when combined with the soft adaptation measures of farming practices, could bring about an increase of household income in the future under a large variety of conditions. These beneficial effects are partly a reflection of the reduced damage from climate change achieved by the project. We conduct this study by utilizing the available resources and capacity of a development agency that has a scope of future applications to actual infrastructure projects. In this paper, we also discuss factors that could become relevant for the application of RDM-based project evaluation in the field of climate finance.
    Keywords: climate change adaptation, climate finance, uncertainty, Robust Decision Making (RDM), economic assessment, irrigation, agriculture, Africa
    Date: 2021–08
  4. By: Kelesego Mmolainyane (Botswana Institute for Development Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: In her quest to further graduate to the high-income status, Botswana seeks to invest more in infrastructure development for both productive and social use. An efficient and effective infrastructure provision is fundamental to excellent public service delivery and access. Sadly, Botswana, like many other world economies, has a challenge of having an infrastructure financing gap. One of the innovative ways to fill this gap is through public private partnerships (PPPs) with the capital market that has excess liquidity. Infrastructure PPPs are complex and capital intensive projects that require project finance experts to advise parties involved regarding returns and risks associated with each project. Various project-financing models can be designed to suit project specifications and they cannot be over-generalised for all PPP projects. Nevertheless, given the tight fiscal space, Botswana now, more than ever, should consider issuing PPP bonds and applying user changes model to finance economic PPP infrastructure for sustainable and inclusive economic growth.
    Keywords: PPPs; Capital market; Project financing; Botswana
    JEL: E44 E47 E62
    Date: 2020–03
  5. By: Pauline Lécole (CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - UMR 5211 - UM - Université de Montpellier - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Marc Moraine (UMR Innovation - Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Alimentation - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this article, we examine the contribution of farmers groups to the agroecological transition and the opportunities that the Common agricultural policy offers for their financing. To this end, we present two case studies of innovative agroecological projects that illustrate the benefits of their collective dimension. We then provide an overview of the measures that exist in the CAP 2014-2020 to support farmers groups. In addition to well-known territorial projects such as LEADER, these measures encourage the pooling of physical capital and, to a lesser extent, the pooling of work. Nevertheless, the CAP still does not provide much support for collective dynamics. Finally, we propose recommendations in terms of public policies to support collectives oriented towards agroecological transition
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous questionnons l'apport des collectifs agricoles à la transition agroécologique et les opportunités que la Politique agricole commune offre pour leurs financements. Pour cela, nous présentons deux études de cas de projets agroécologiques innovants qui illustrent les avantages conférés par leur dimension collective. Nous réalisons ensuite un état des lieux des dispositifs qui existent dans la PAC 2014-2020 pour soutenir les collectifs agricoles. En plus des projets de territoires bien connus comme LEADER, ces dispositifs favorisent la mutualisation de capital physique et dans une moindre mesure la mutualisation du travail. La PAC soutient néanmoins encore assez peu les démarches collectives. Pour finir, nous proposons des recommandations en termes de politiques publiques visant à favoriser le soutien de collectifs orientés vers la transition agroécologique.
    Keywords: farmers collectives,common agricultural policy,agroecology,collectifs agricoles,politique agricole commune,agroécologie
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Kadija Charni (CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé); Nathalie Greenan (TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEET - Centre d'études de l'emploi et du travail - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM], CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM]); Janna Besamusca (Utrecht University [Utrecht])
    Abstract: In this report, we explore the feasibility of a European database of working conditions clauses in collective agreements in EU countries. Our proposal builds on the methodology developed by the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and the WageIndicator Foundation to build an international database of collective agreements and in the BARCOM (VS/2016/0106) and COLBAR Europe (VS/2019/0077) projects to collect and code European collective agreements. It also builds on the CNAM-CEET CAGE project which has developed a research infrastructure in France to study the outcomes of negotiations on gender professional equality and employer behaviour. The idea is to combine structured information from an employer-level survey with coded information from a database of collective agreements and unstructured data from an archive recording the full content of the OCR processed texts of collective agreements. Such an infrastructure would allow better analysis of the bargaining process, bargaining outcomes and employer behaviour. Using the example of gender equality clauses, we demonstrate the feasibility of building such an infrastructure and the added value of using coded information and text mining methods for comparative analysis. Two European surveys, the ECS and ESES, can be combined with the database of collective agreements at individual and/or sectoral level. We explore how collective agreements at sector and company level should be collected to achieve some form of representativity.
    Abstract: Dans ce rapport, nous explorons la faisabilité d'une base de données européenne relative aux clauses concernant les conditions de travail dans les conventions collectives des pays de l'UE. Notre proposition s'appuie sur la méthodologie développée par l'Université d'Amsterdam (UvA) et la Fondation WageIndicator pour construire une base de données internationale de conventions collectives et dans les projets BARCOM (VS/2016/0106) et COLBAR Europe (VS/2019/0077) pour collecter et coder les conventions collectives européennes. Il s'appuie également sur le projet CAGE du CNAM-CEET qui a développé une infrastructure de recherche en France pour étudier les résultats des négociations sur l'égalité professionnelle femmes-hommes et le comportement des employeurs. L'idée est de combiner des informations structurées provenant d'une enquête auprès des employeurs avec des informations codées provenant d'une base de données de conventions collectives et des données non structurées provenant d'une archive enregistrant le contenu intégral des textes océrisé des conventions collectives. Une telle infrastructure permettrait une meilleure analyse du processus de négociation, des résultats de la négociation et du comportement des employeurs. En utilisant l'exemple des clauses d'égalité professionelle femmes-hommes, nous démontrons la faisabilité de la construction d'une telle infrastructure et la valeur ajoutée de l'utilisation des informations codées et des méthodes d'exploration de texte pour l'analyse comparative. Deux enquêtes européennes, l'ECS et l'ESES, peuvent être combinées avec la base de données des conventions collectives au niveau individuel et/ou sectoriel. Nous étudions comment les conventions collectives au niveau du secteur et de l'entreprise devraient être collectées pour atteindre une certaine forme de représentativité.
    Keywords: Collective bargaining agreement,Gender equality,Data integration
    Date: 2021–07
  7. By: Dezhina Irina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Over the past year, the pandemic and the resulting crisis whipped up the decision-making process in science and technology policies. A number of top-level programs were revised, alongside some adjustment of budget allocations for R&D projects. Operational decisions were adopted across a number of areas, where discussions and coordinated planning had been underway for several years already (e.g., the transformation of scientific research funds, improvement of coordination and promotion of continuity between the development institutions operating in the science and technology sector, alterations in the current procedures for estimating the cost-effectiveness of budget-funded venture capital investment, etc.), in order to significantly change the situation in that sphere. Besides, some important normative legal changes were introduced, which addressed the science sector and promoted the creation of a favorable environment for developing and implementing technological innovations.
    Keywords: Russian economy, R&D, science, technology
    JEL: O31 O32 O3 I28 I2
    Date: 2021

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