nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2021‒02‒22
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Generating Multiple Resilience Dividends from Managing Unnatural Disasters in Asia Opportunities for Measurement and Policy By Mechler , Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan
  2. Improving the environmental performance of Moroccan industries By Amina Laaroussi; Denis Lemaître; Soumia Bakkali; Souad Ajana
  3. Market-induced carbon leakage in China’s certified emission reduction projects By Huiying Ye; Qi Zhang; Xunzhang Pan; Arash Farnoosh
  4. Role of Farmers’ Organizations in Agricultural Transformation in Africa: Overview of Continental, Regional, and Selected National Level Organizations By Kampmann, Willi; Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo
  5. Do slum upgrading programmes improve living standards? Evidence from Djibouti By Sandrine Mesplé-Somps; Laure Pasquier-Doumer; Charlotte Guénard
  6. The Non-operating Solar Projects: Examining the Impact of the Feed-in Tariff Amendment in Japan By Ling Chu
  7. Paying extra for better wind nearshore By Minh Ha-Duong
  8. List of wind power projects in Vietnam, 2021-01 By Minh Ha-Duong; Lan Nguyễn

  1. By: Mechler , Reinhard (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis); Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis)
    Abstract: Despite solid evidence regarding the large benefits of reducing disaster risk, it has remained difficult to motivate sustained investment into disaster risk reduction (DRR). Recently, international policy debate has started to emphasize the need for focusing DRR investment toward actions that generate multiple dividends, including reducing loss of lives and livelihoods, unlocking development, and creating development cobenefits. We examine whether available and innovative decision support tools are fit-for-purpose. Focusing on the Asia region, we identify evidence of multiple dividends crafted using expert-based methods, such as cost–benefit analysis for selecting and evaluating “hard-resilience-type” interventions. Given a rising demand for “softer” and systemic DRR investments in projects and programs, participatory decision support tools have become increasingly relevant. As one set of tools, resilience capacity (capital) measurement approaches may be used to support actions and decisions throughout all stages of the project cycle. Measuring capacity for resilience dividends, not outcome, such tools can serve as participatory decision support for organizations working at community and other levels for scoping out how development and disaster risk interact, as well as for supporting the cogeneration of multiple resilience dividend-type solutions with those at risk.
    Keywords: decision support; disaster risk; multiple dividends; resilience
    JEL: O21 O22 Q56
    Date: 2019–12–17
  2. By: Amina Laaroussi (University Hassan II); Denis Lemaître (FoAP - Formation et apprentissages professionnels - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement - ENSTA Bretagne - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées Bretagne, Département SHS - Département Sciences Humaines et Sociales - ENSTA Bretagne - École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées Bretagne); Soumia Bakkali (University Hassan II); Souad Ajana (University Hassan II)
    Abstract: The environmental awareness of Moroccan engineers in charge of industrial projects has become essential to improve environmental performance and, more broadly, to contribute to the environment protection and sustainable development strategy of Morocco. However, it is difficult to measure the level of environmental awareness among engineers and to promote it. Thus, to answer this issue and provide comprehension tools, a field study was carried out among Moroccan company managers from seven different industrial sectors. The manufacturing companies are mostly certified ISO 14001 and ISO 9001, they are nevertheless strongly consumers of raw materials and exercise polluting industrial activities which generate waste. The survey aims to gain a better understanding of the policies of these companies in terms of their environmental management of industrial projects, and expected engineering skills. It covers the projects managed by engineers from different specialties who graduated from Moroccan schools. The study combines on the one side, a quantitative assessment section on the mastery of the environmental footprint in the operational decision-making phase of 174 industrial projects led by Moroccan engineers. On the other side, it includes a qualitative analysis section of the expectations and recommendations of the industrialists for a better environmental management of projects. The study shows that the level of environmental implication of the engineers in the projects leaves room for improvement. The industrialists' attention was mainly focused on the control of the environmental footprint when completing projects, whilst still contributing to the improvement of the performance of industry and the country.
    Keywords: Morocco,Environmental performance,Environmental footprint,Manufacturing industries,Engineers,Project management
    Date: 2020–12
  3. By: Huiying Ye (China University of Petroleum, IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Qi Zhang (China University of Petroleum); Xunzhang Pan (China University of Petroleum); Arash Farnoosh (IFP School)
    Abstract: The topic of climate change has aroused increasingly widespread concern around the world. Under the agreement at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), covened in Paris, France (Paris Agreement), which requires all Parties to undertake emission reductions, the developing countries who were once exempted from emission reduction obligations are now becoming more and more important. This study focuses on mitigation actions in China, the largest carbon emitter, as well as the largest developing country in the world. Specifically, we examine Chinese Certified Emission Reduction (CCER) projects. The objective is to compare the reduction efficiency of three types of projects: simple abatement and completely renewable energy alternative projects at the supply side and demand side projects. From market-induced carbon leakage point of view, a dual market equilibrium model was built, with results showing that the key factors affecting the leakage rates are price elasticities of both demand and supply sides and market share parameters. In most cases, renewable energy alternative projects show the least leakage rate while demand side projects show the highest. Sensitivity analysis finds that leakage rates for the three types of projects are more sensitive to price elasticity parameters than market share parameters. Moreover, factors Edec (electricity price elasticity of coal demand from coal-fired generation) and Ede (electricity price elasticity of electricity demand) affect not only the leakage rate of each project but also the comparative results between them. Although our study is based on China, the theoretical analysis is applicable in other regional voluntary emission reduction markets around the world. So, a systematic approach to comprehensively analyze the issue is summarized, based on which, we recommend two mitigation strategies to cope with the issue in offset projects in order to give managerial insights for the government. Firstly, the calculated leakage rates for different types of projects provide a new perspective to evaluate various offset projects, thus helping consider project types for priority validation. Secondly, we suggest to establish an accurate and classified discount coefficient system according to the project types to deal with the issue; the sensitivity analysis is helpful to find the most influential factors. A top-down approach to implement the strategy is proposed.
    Keywords: Market-induced carbon leakage,Certified emission reduction projects,Reduction efficiency,Comparison
    Date: 2020–08
  4. By: Kampmann, Willi; Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo
    Abstract: This study analyzes the critical role played by farmers’ organizations (FOs) in transforming agriculture in Africa. Specifically, it provides an overview of the state of continental and regional FOs in Africa. It also uses three-country (Senegal, Uganda and Zambia) case studies to discuss the structure, functioning, objectives, and financing of the FOs in these selected countries. Findings show that the FOs in the three case study countries are more or less well-structured. The national-level (umbrella) FOs are linked to the local-level substructures. However, membership in these FOs is voluntary and a sizeable majority of small-scale producers is yet to be part of the organized FOs. The umbrella organizations represent just about 2.5 million, 2 million, and 550,000 (equivalent to about 30%, 10.9% and 6.4%) small-scale farmers in Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia, respectively. Evidence from the continental, regional and the three country case studies suggests that many FOs face capacity and financial constraints. Nearly all FOs are dependent on external resources. The FOs generate meagre proportion of their finances from members – just about 5% of the annual budget. Programs and incentives to rally members to contribute towards the FOs would be timely. Some viable ways of raising revenue may include strengthening of farmer-driven cooperatives, transfer of knowledge, innovation and training of members, and creating value addition through processing of agricultural produce. The evolving agricultural policies have now seen FOs assuming the roles previously played by governments, such as agricultural education, marketing of produce, and provision and distribution of farm inputs. However, many of these FOs are not equipped to do so because of limited skills, weak organizational capacity, and severe resource restraints. In the end, FOs are undermined by attempts to take on too many roles and taking on over-ambitious objectives and providing public goods. In order to move agriculture to the next level, the existing FOs require energizing, first through building the capacity of the existing leaders, increasing the membership base and their financial contribution to support the operations of the organizations, and by creating opportunities for the FOs to engage policy makers on a regular basis. Governments should also give FOs the right to sit in all decision-making bodies examining agricultural, food and rural development issues. Financial support and funding from donors should be merited and channeled to accountable organizations, and should expand its focus to include institutional development that would strengthen the FOs rather than only supporting micro-projects. There is also need to improve linkages and coordination among the various projects and programs supported by donor funding.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Relations/Trade, Marketing
    Date: 2021–02–18
  5. By: Sandrine Mesplé-Somps (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Laure Pasquier-Doumer (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Charlotte Guénard (UMR Développement et Sociétés - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, CRI - Centre de Recherches de l'Iedes - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Slum upgrading programmes are high on the international community's agenda. Yet their impact evaluations remain few and far between, especially when the programmes include different components such as roads, water supply, electricity, and community facilities. In addition, employment is rarely considered as an outcome in the evaluation of slum upgrading programmes, although it is often one of the main priorities of slum upgrading policies. This article analyses the effects on employment of such a programme in a Djibouti slum. It uses a difference-in-difference approach to evaluate the average impact and heterogeneous effects of the programme. We find that the project is unlikely to have improved access to employment in general and to formal wage jobs in particular, as was expected at the start of the project. It has also failed to increase earned income. Nonetheless, we show that self-employed activities have developed, more particularly in places adjacent to the project roads.
    Abstract: Les programmes de réhabilitation des bidonvilles sont l'une des priorités de la communauté internationale. Pourtant, les évaluations d'impact sont rares, en particulier lorsque les programmes comprennent différents éléments tels que les routes, l'approvisionnement en eau, l'électricité et les infrastructures communautaires. En outre, l'emploi est rarement considéré comme un résultat dans l'évaluation des programmes de réhabilitation des bidonvilles, bien qu'il soit souvent l'une des principales priorités des politiques de réhabilitation des bidonvilles. Cet article analyse les effets sur l'emploi d'un programme de cette nature mené dans un bidonville de Djibouti. Grâce à la méthode des doubles différences, il évalue l'impact moyen et les effets hétérogènes du programme. Nous constatons qu'il est peu probable que le projet ait amélioré l'accès à l'emploi au sens large, et aux emplois salariés formels en particulier, comme prévu au début du projet. Il n'a pas non plus permis d'augmenter les revenus issus de l'activité professionnelle. Nous montrons néanmoins que les activités indépendantes se sont développées, plus particulièrement dans les localités proches des axes routiers du projet.
    Keywords: slums,urban project,impact analysis,employment,housing,Djibouti
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Ling Chu (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: The non-operating solar power projects refers to a large gap between the operating and approved solar capacity in Japan. The country amended the feed-in tariff (FIT) law in 2017 to address this issue. This empirical study investigates the impact of the amended FIT policy on non-operating solar projects using municipality-level panel data from 2014 to 2019. We find that the amended policy improved the relationship between the approved capacity and operating capacity of solar power projects. The impacts are heterogeneous across different sizes of solar power projects: they are more substantial in largeand mega-scale solar power than in small-scale projects. To explore the determinants of non-operation, we also apply a cross-sectional analysis to identify municipal characteristics related to non-operating capacity. We find that the coefficient for the terrain slope is negative in the operating capacity model and positive in the non-operating capacity model. As a steep land surface leads to higher construction and maintenance costs, the results indicate that non-operating projects are located in municipalities with higher construction costs.
    Date: 2021–02
  7. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Université Paris-Saclay - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Analysts often divide wind power projects into two categories: onshore and offshore. A third category recently emerged: nearshore projects, built on the intertidal flats. We observe a quasi cross-sectional sample of Vietnam's wind power projects, exhaustive regarding projects at the operating and building stages, comprising projects in the three categories. The median investment for onshore wind power projects in Vietnam is 1 680 USD/kW. It is 2 174 USD/kW for nearshore projects. We computed the relative extra investment distribution for intertidal projects compared to onshore projects in our sample. On average, a MW of generation capacity requires about 50% more investment nearshore than onshore. But variation is considerable, the interquartile range 20%-70% represents the extra cost better. It does not follow that electricity from nearshore stations costs more. Annual generation depends on the capacity factor. Projects developers are paying extra for better wind nearshore.
    Keywords: Wind power,Vietnam,Investment cost,Energy transition
    Date: 2021–02–01
  8. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Université Paris-Saclay - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lan Nguyễn
    Abstract: This dataset an historical list of wind power projects in Vietnam, updated 2021-01-21. The list contains 473 records, among which 381 refer to active projects. It includes the generation capacity, the project's location at the commune level, its stage classified on the Preliminary / Development / Implementation / Operation / Decommission scale, and wether it is onshore, nearshore or offshore. The sample is comprehensive for Implementation and Operation projects. We cover the total project investment cost for 162 records. We obtained the dataset by reviewing only public sources: national power development plan updates, provincial investment plans decisions ; the press and the professional literature. This dataset can be used for energy system research and modeling, for policy analysis at the provincial and national levels, and to better understand the market conditions. It provides an inspirational example of how fast it is possible to switch to renewable energy on a national scale. Climate change mitigation requires more stories like this one.
    Keywords: Wind power,Vietnam,Investment cost,Energy transition
    Date: 2021–02–01

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