nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2020‒03‒09
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Assessing Transportation Impacts Using Vehicle Miles Traveled Rather Than Level of Service Can Incentivize Infill Development By Volker, Jamey; Lee, Amy; Fitch, Dillon
  2. How large are road traffic externalities in the city? The highway tunneling in Maastricht, the Netherlands By Joep Tijm; Thomas Michielsen; Peter Zwaneveld; Raoul van Maarseveen
  4. The Role of Customer-Centric, Cross-Functional Integration in Data Governance By Milomir Vojvodic
  5. China: current and potential role in infrastructure investment in Latin America By Chauvet, Pablo; Chen, Taotao; Jaimurzina, Azhar; Xu, Run; Jin, Ying

  1. By: Volker, Jamey; Lee, Amy; Fitch, Dillon
    Abstract: Local governments have long relied on Level of Service (LOS), a measure of automobile congestion, as the basis for assessing transportation impacts of land use development projects. However, use of the LOS metric creates an incentive for projects that contribute to urban sprawl while penalizing denser development projects that could allow people better accessibility to jobs and services through alternate modes like walking, bicycling, or transit. Starting July 1, 2020, local governments in California are required to use vehicle miles traveled (VMT) rather than LOS to measure land use projects’ transportation impacts. Researchers at UC Davis studied how this change affects the approval process for urban development. Because most agencies have not yet switched to using VMT in their analyses, the researchers looked back at environmental documents for development projects in the City of Los Angeles between 2001 and 2016 and determined whether these projects could have benefited from using a VMT metric instead of LOS for measuring their transportation impacts. Findings are summarized in this policy brief. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Law, CEQA, development, housing, level of service, vehicle miles traveled
    Date: 2020–02–01
  2. By: Joep Tijm (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Thomas Michielsen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Peter Zwaneveld (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Raoul van Maarseveen
    Abstract: Infrastructure projects are increasingly aiming to improve liveability, in particular in urban areas. We analyse a specifi c case in which an existing highway in an urban area was moved underground in order to improve intercity traffic flows and to reduce traffic externalities. As travel times within the city hardly changed, this allows for a clean identifi cation of the value of traffic externalities. We find that the liveability bene fits of such integrated infrastructure are substantial relative to the construction costs. Each halving of distance to the tunneled segment is associated with 3.5% more appreciation in house prices since the start of the project.
    JEL: R12 J24 J31
    Date: 2018–05
  3. By: Curraj, Erjon; Lab, SDAG
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Albania, similar to other markets, operate in complex, fast-paced and unpredictable environments due to their size and nature. In our contemporary knowledge-based economy, business is constantly changing, and SMEs are thus continually faced with the challenge to find new and innovative ways to improve and adapt to the rapid transformations. As a result, there is a growing interest and necessity for SMEs to explore and adapt new and innovative mechanisms for better decision making, which will then lead to improved performance and competitiveness. Digitalization of SMEs with the use of Business Intelligence (BI) and Knowledge Management (KM) systems is one such innovative instrument open to SMEs for a better performance and increased competitiveness. The research for this doctoral thesis is then set precisely in this configuration whereby: on one hand the current level of adoption and use of advanced ICTs and technological innovation within SMEs, or business digitalization as will be coined later, is relatively limited due to a variety of factors; and on the other hand ICTs themselves as technological systems or tools as well as part of business landscape, i.e. ICT as a sector, are a major driver of innovation, modernization and growth for the Albanian economy. This doctoral thesis addresses the gap in the current state of research regarding the development, adoption and use of advanced ICTs systems, i.e. business digitalization, within SMEs. In addition, the research for the doctoral thesis expands the challenge to the impact of business digitalization on performance of SMEs in Albania. Clearly, SMEs have been selected as the central ground of research not only to contribute towards filling a research gap in management and ICTs studies in Albania, but also because of the central role that SMEs play in Albanian economy and their future potential in the digital world. The results show that business digitalization impacts positively the overall performance of SMEs in Albania. Size, age and location of the SME dominate performance and are related to the business digitalisation more than strategy. Also, the entrepreneurial characteristics of the owner – manager also impact the digitalization. Having a clear business plan was also found to be important when it comes to using BI. SMEs in Albania are a vital part of the national economy and the research shows that there is growing interest in ICTs, digitalisation, BI and KM, but innovation is still at relatively low levels due to financial and human resources, which are limited. However, the research highlights that SMEs are very flexible and easy to adopt to change and when this is combined with a visionary owner- manager they tend to move towards business digitalisation. Another finding of this study is that digitalisation have lead SMEs to reconsider and re-conceptualise their business models attempting to move towards innovations that impact performance. Also, the concept of business model innovations is also gaining ground in SMEs in Albania. Findings show that the use of BI and other digitalisation processes is mainly driven by strategic and innovation related motives that are internal to the company and the owner-manager. The use of BI as a result of external technological factors also plays a role. Analysis of the findings show that the use of BI and digitalisation have a positive impact on business performance. The findings of this research paper have practical implications for the SMEs sector in Albania not only in providing an assessment of the current use of BI, but also in exploring the benefits and potential usage of BI as a necessary activity for deriving improved performance. Findings of this research can be used by owners-managers to better understand how firms can engage with digitalisation and BI and how their adoption and implementation affect business performance. Another implication for business sector is that digitally mature companies have better performance and thus derive more revenue and become more competitive. Finally, the research shows that digitization has a variety of dimensions and can be understood differently by different SMEs, owner-managers and staff, but it is a major contributor to business performance. Future research is needed to explore further the role of digitalisation processes in SMEs in Albania particularly related to enabling and hindering factors. In addition, further research is needed regarding the business model innovations, particularly in terms of human and organizational factors. This study is one of the first research contributions in the case of Albania to analyse the impact of digitalization, specifically the impact of BI on SMEs in Albania.
    Date: 2020–03–04
  4. By: Milomir Vojvodic (University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic Author-2-Name: Emil Velinov Author-2-Workplace-Name: University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The paper sheds light on customer database dynamics, dimensions and characteristics of adapted benefits connected with their business potential in a circular economy. The study suggests that allocating funds on data compliance could bring added value to the companies in specific conditions linked to the processing of client data.Methodology/Technique - This study examines the impact of a Customer-Centric approach in relation to Data Governance. The empirical part of the study is based on data gathered from middle and top level managers and owners of projects responsible for managing customer data in multinational enterprises across EMEA region. EU companies could use Data Protection legislation as a springboard, as their financial benefits are higher than the respective costs necessary to comply with. Thus, a perspective management practice investigates the following roles: cross-functional management and combining wide customer-centric units (marketing, sales, service, product), external client process integration, data governance engagement (there is a balance of the current expertise from the customer's data that is nested within functions and capacity to evaluate inter-functional influence of client data-driven management). Finding - The paper outlines evidence of the effect of customer centricity on data governance in selected companies from emerging markets. Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: Customer Centricity; Data Governance; Cross-functional Integration.
    JEL: M30 M31 M39
    Date: 2019–12–30
  5. By: Chauvet, Pablo; Chen, Taotao; Jaimurzina, Azhar; Xu, Run; Jin, Ying
    Abstract: China’s investments are one way for expanding infrastructure that many Latin American countries have been seeking through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP). To attract and retain the interest of the private sector, the existence of a proper, strong governance, as well as stable and sound legal frameworks is paramount. Decision-making and implementation processes also need to be improved to ensure that the match between the infrastructure investment needs in Latin America and the Chinese financing capabilities effectively results in a leap towards the improvement of infrastructure in quantity and quality, an imperative for the sustainable development of the region. The current document offers an overview of the needs for infrastructure investments in Latin America and the region’s experience with PPP in infrastructure up to now, as well as the current capabilities and potential of the Chinese public and private sectors to join the infrastructure PPP market in Latin America.
    Date: 2020–02–28

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