nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2019‒11‒25
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. The Effects of Public R&D Subsidies on Private R&D Activities in Mexico By Emmanuel Chavez
  2. Physical Capital, Skill Intensity and Ownership Structure in Foreign Direct Investment Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa By J. Paul Dunne; Santigie Mohamed Kargbo
  3. Innovation modes in SMEs: Mechanisms integrating STI-processes into DUI-mode learning and the role of regional innovation policy By Alhusen, Harm; Bennat, Tatjana
  4. Start-up Subsidies: Does the Policy Instrument Matter? By Hanna Hottenrott; Robert Richstein
  5. Transit Oriented Development Opportunities Among Failing Malls By Blanco, Hilda; Wikstrom, Alexander

  1. By: Emmanuel Chavez (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of a public research and development (R&D) subsidy to private firms in Mexico. My estimates suggest that the subsidy has a positive impact on personnel allocated to innovation activities, but it does not have an effect on stronger measures of R&D performance, such as research personnel, patents or private R&D spending. I argue that awarded firms would have performed their planned R&D projects in case they were not granted the public funds. Additional public funds seem to be invested to allocate more personnel on already planned projects, but not to carry out additional ones. Specifically, I analyse the Programa de Estimulos a la Innovacion (PEI) subsidy. The program's rules set a grade threshold below which no R&D projects get the grants and above which some projects are granted. This granting process allows to use a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach to identify causal inference.
    Keywords: Public Policy,Regression Discontinuity,Innovation,Research and Development,Impact Evaluation
    Date: 2019–11
  2. By: J. Paul Dunne (School of Economics, University of Cape Town); Santigie Mohamed Kargbo (West African Monetary Institute (WAMI), Ghana)
    Abstract: While the intra-firm trade literature finds that capital-intensive foreign direct investment (FDI) is more likely to occur through joint ventures with local companies when targeted at capital-intensive industries, there is scant evidence on what happens in developing countries. This paper investigates FDI in sub-Saharan Africa, using a large firm-level dataset of manufacturing and services sectors for 19 countries in the region in 2010. It finds strong evidence that domestic firms are indeed more likely to be integrated in FDI projects in capital-intensive rather than labour-intensive sectors. This means that the composition of FDI matters for developing countries, as more capital-intensive FDI is more likely to result in joint ventures and this should facilitate knowledge and technology spillovers to the local agents. In addition, it implies that support is needed to develop skills in local firms in capital-intensive sectors to encourage foreign firms to engage in joint ventures with them, rather than set up wholly owned subsidiaries and outsource.
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Alhusen, Harm; Bennat, Tatjana
    Abstract: Innovation processes consist of interactive learning mechanisms that combine different knowledge sources. Using a set of 72 exploratory interviews with small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and regional innovation consultants, this paper analyzes the combination of STI (science-technology -innovation) and DUI (innovation based on learning-by-doing, -using and -interacting) modes of innovation. We show that SMEs integrate STI-based knowledge into DUI-routines through mechanisms with varying levels of complexity. The mechanisms we describe differ with respect to a) effects on innovativeness, b) the absorptive capacities required and c) incurred costs. Based on these mechanisms, d) cognitive, organizational and financial barriers to combinatorial innovation modes are derived. We find that e) regional innovation consultancies play an important role in fostering combinatorial innovation modes. We therefore explore the role of regional innovation policy and its effects on firms' combination of innovation modes. Our findings point out innovation drivers that facilitate SMEs' capacity to absorb STI-based knowledge. Based on our empirical findings, we derive implications for innovation policy with regards to absorptive capacities in SMEs.
    Keywords: Innovation modes,DUI,Regional Innovation System,R&D cooperation,Knowledge bases,Regional innovation policy
    JEL: D23 D83 L10 L22 O31 O33 O38
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Hanna Hottenrott (aTUM School of Management, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstraße 21, 80333 Munich, Germany, bZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research, L7, 1, Mannheim, Germany.); Robert Richstein (cManchot Graduate School, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany)
    Abstract: New knowledge-intensive firms contribute to innovation, competition, and employment growth, but externalities like knowledge spillovers can prevent entrepreneurs from appropriating the full returns from their investments. In addition, uncertainty and information asymmetry pose challenges for financing. Public policy programs therefore aim to support start-ups. This study evaluates the effects of participation in such programs on the performance of start-ups in high-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors that were founded in Germany between 2005 and 2012. Distinguishing between grants and subsidized loans and after matching recipients and non-recipients based on a broad set of founder and company characteristics, we find that both grants and subsidized loans facilitate tangible investment, employment and revenue growth. Grants are, however, better suited to increasing R&D investments than loans are. Combined with grants, subsidized loans facilitate turning research results into marketable products by means of investments in tangible assets. Start-ups that participate in both types of programs outperform grant-only recipients in terms of innovation performance, employment and future revenues. Finally, program participation does not crowd out private venture capital.
    Keywords: financing constraints, subsidies, R&D, high-tech start-ups, innovation policy
    JEL: G32 H25 O38
    Date: 2019–11
  5. By: Blanco, Hilda; Wikstrom, Alexander
    Abstract: Transit Oriented Development (TOD) typically follows a common construction sequence that begins with transit infrastructure, followed by changing land use designations and densities. TODs are then built around transit stations or lines. An alternative approach is to turn failing shopping malls with their large footprints into mixed-use housing, then provide or enhance transit to these redevelopment projects. This approach could result in successful TODs: housing and mixed uses at appropriate densities to support transit. This policy brief summarizes findings from the white paper which reviewed the literature and provided the rationale for such redevelopments. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Feasibility analysis, Policy analysis, Public private partnerships, Public transit, Redevelopment, Shopping centers, Transit oriented development, Zoning
    Date: 2019–11–01

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