nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2019‒09‒16
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Scaling agile on large enterprise level – systematic bundling and application of state of the art approaches for lasting agile transitions By Alexander Poth; Mario Kottke; Andreas Riel
  3. Public Funding and Corporate Innovation By Mathias Beck; Martin Junge; Ulrich Kaiser
  4. Land Values and Compensation Payments from the Viewpoint of Owners and Users Affected By Projects: Analysis of Selected Land and Water Development Projects in Turkey By Harun Tanrivermis; Yesim Aliefendioglu
  5. Socio-economic Impact Assessment of Land Consolidation Projects in Turkey: A Case Study of Beyazaltn Village Land Consolidation Project in Eskiehir Province, Turkey By Harun Tanrivermis; Yesim Aliefendioglu

  1. By: Alexander Poth (G-SCOP_CPP - CPP - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INPG - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Volkswagen AG); Mario Kottke (Volkswagen AG); Andreas Riel (G-SCOP_CPP - CPP - G-SCOP - Laboratoire des sciences pour la conception, l'optimisation et la production - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INPG - Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Organizations are looking for ways of establishing agile and lean process for delivery. Many approaches exist in the form of frameworks, methods and tools to setup an individual composition for a best fit. The challenge is that large organizations are heterogeneous and diverse, and hence there is no "one size fits all" approach. To facilitate a systematic implementation of agile and lean, this article proposes a transition kit based on abstraction. This kit scouts and bundles state of the art methods and tools from the agile and lean community to align them with governance and compliance aspects of the specific enterprise. Coaching of the application of the transition kit ensures an adequate instantiation. The instantiation handles business domain specific aspects and standards. A coaching governance ensures continuous improvement. An example of the systematic application of the transition approach as well as its scaling is demonstrated through its application in the Volkswagen Group IT.
    Date: 2019–09–02
  2. By: Aadil Belhaj (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Hassan 1er [Settat]); Jamal Zahi (Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales - Université Hassan 1er [Settat])
    Abstract: Private sector companies are mobilizing to adopt IT governance frameworks to control their information systems and increase the profitability of their IT investments. Today, public organizations have come to adopt the same approach. The study of IT governance in the public sector has interested several researchers in recent years. However, there is still a lack of literature concerning its implementation in developing countries and especially in a context of regionalization. The case study in this article shows how a "regional public organization" has implemented its IT governance framework in a regionalization context. The results of this study show that the intentional implementation of the mechanisms, with reference to the governance guidelines of the central top management, was done without major complications. However, the organization should make a lot of efforts to "decentralize" processes at the regional level to better support IT projects with regional specificities, and to improve its structures.
    Abstract: Les entreprises du secteur privé se sont mobilisées pour adopter des cadres de gouvernance des TI afin de contrôler leurs systèmes d'information et augmenter la rentabilité de leurs investissements en technologies de l'information. Aujourd'hui, les organisations publiques ont fini par adopter la même approche. L'étude de la gouvernance des TI dans le secteur public a intéressé plusieurs chercheurs ces dernières années. Cependant, il existe encore un manque en littérature concernant son implémentation dans les pays en voie de développement et surtout dans un contexte de régionalisation. L'étude de cas menée dans cet article, montre comment « une organisation publique régionale » a implémenté son cadre de gouvernance des TI dans un contexte de régionalisation. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que l'implémentation intentionnelle des mécanismes, en se référant aux orientations de gouvernance de la direction centrale, s'est faite sans grandes complications. Or, l'organisation devrait déployer beaucoup d'efforts pour « décentraliser » des processus au niveau régional pour mieux supporter les projets TI aux spécificités régionales, et d'améliorer ses structures. Mots-clés : Gouvernance des TI, organisation publique, régionalisation, décentralisation, implémentation.
    Keywords: implementation,public organization,decentralization,regionalization,IT governance
    Date: 2019–08–23
  3. By: Mathias Beck (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Junge (Ministry of Higher Education and Science, Copenhagen, Denmark); Ulrich Kaiser (University of Zurich Department of Business Administration Chair for Entrepreneurship)
    Abstract: We review and condense the body of literature on the economic returns of public R&D on private R&D and find that: (i) private returns to R&D appear to be large and larger than the returns to alternative investments; (ii) private R&D and R&D subsidies are positively correlated and there is no evidence for crowding out; (iii) R&D cooperation increases private R&D; (iv) there appear to exist complementarities between alternative sources of funding; (v) the mobility of R&D workers, particularly of university scientists, is positively related to innovation; (vi) there are many university spin-offs but these are no more successful than non-university spin-offs; (vii) universities constitute important collaboration partners and (viii) clusters enhance collaboration, patents and productivity. Key problems for economic policy advice are that the identification of causal effects is problematic in most studies and that little is known about the optimal design of policy measures.
    Keywords: Keywords: R&D subsidies, R&D tax credits, cooperation, labor mobility, returns to R&D, university spin-offs, R&D clusters, public-private knowledge transfer
    JEL: C54 J6 I28 O3 L52
    Date: 2018–01
  4. By: Harun Tanrivermis; Yesim Aliefendioglu
    Abstract: It is noteworthy that land valuation practices and compensation determination methods differ based on the purposes of land acquisition and especially owners have problems of perception regarding the concepts of “value” and “compensation” and that land value and compensation criteria deviate to a great extent. Methods used in valuation studies for land acquisition differ according to the types and kinds of real estates in many countries. Valuation criteria vary depending on the methods used in land acquisition and expropriation processes and it becomes necessary to classify the type of real estate in the first place as bare land and developed land in the valuation studies. In Turkey, under the Law on Expropriation No. 6830 dated 1956, it was firstly necessary to determine the expropriation values of land as per the methods of income and market value. Then, under the Expropriation Law dated 1983 and numbered 2942, it has been made legally obligatory to determine the value of parcels in the form of land lots based on “net income that the land can bring according to the position and conditions of the source and as it is used” and to conduct valuation procedures of parcels that have gained the quality of land lot based on the “non-special-purpose precedent transaction value before the expropriation date (comparative sales analysis method)”. Analysis and valuation methods and results of land acquisition and valuation studies for public and private projects are not generally understood, and valuation results that are appreciated according to the properties of land and the value expectations of the owners also deviate significantly. A comparative analysis of income value of lands, market values, values appraised by expert committees appointed by courts, if any, and the land values or compensation amounts which the owners would like to be paid (willingness-to-accept - WTA) using the results of 20 different projects analyzed in terms of parcel unit values was conducted by the real estate and asset valuation research group over last decade. According to the results of the field studies related to the selected case studies, it has been found that the land unit values that the owners want to be paid are generally higher than the land market and income values, and in these conditions, it is generally difficult to complete the land acquisition process in a short time by compromising with the land owners. Also, they preferred generally payment as cash compensation instead of in kind. According to the results of the selected sample project analyzes, the main reasons for the value expectation of the owners affected by the project to be higher than the estimated value of the land according to the income method include the expropriation values (or negative experiences) determined by courts in previous projects and some subjective factors. Factors such as the proximity of the parcels to village settlements, rivers, creeks and roads, land tenure and fertility of the land seem to be much more influential on the land value expectations of the owners. In many project areas, expropriation of parcels outside village settlements usually takes place and this can be interpreted as land prices should be relatively low. However, factors such as land availability and especially the lack of irrigated land in the project site and surrounding settlements, the presence of irrigated land generally in the expropriation area (except the irrigation facilities to be formed in the adjacent area after water retention) and the high population increase are among the reasons for the high value expectations of the owners. Nevertheless, it should be kept in mind that criteria such as “social elements” and “expectation and tendencies of the owners” are not included in the legislation and should not be taken into consideration in practice, in consideration of the expropriation values of the expropriated land. The fact that land values that the land owners want to be paid for are higher than the market values of the income value and parcels that have gained land lot qualities, which are clearly defined in the legislation, are considered as the reasons for the increase in dissatisfaction levels of the land acquisition process of the affected owners and affect the adoption of investments at the local level negatively. There are frequent instances where owners and users of land, and even the local community as a whole, tend to not want investment projects in general due to such reasons as making traditional benefit-cost analysis instead of social benefit-cost analysis during the decision making of investment projects; the weakness in implementation of international standards in project land acquisition phase; and not focusing on the assessment and implementation of tools for assessing impacts after land acquisition and mitigating adverse impacts. In these conditions, it seems necessary that public and private institutions should ensure transparency of the process of land acquisition and expropriation, and compensation calculation and payment systems are removed from the national scale to achieve compliance with international approaches and standards.
    Keywords: comparison of income and market values; expropriation compensation; Land Values; satisfaction analysis; willingness-to-accept
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01
  5. By: Harun Tanrivermis; Yesim Aliefendioglu
    Abstract: Emphasis is placed on developing and implementing projects for the efficient use of land resources in developing countries due to high population growth and high growth targets. Especially in developing countries like Turkey, the agricultural sector still has an important place in the economy of the country due to criteria such as agricultural production, employment and foreign trade. The average enterprise land of agricultural operations, which are 3.1 million units in total, is around 6 hectares, and 64% of households are known to have holding lands assets that are smaller than 5 hectares. It has been determined that a total of 32.5 million parcels are in the form of agricultural land and that the agricultural land processed per household is composed of 11 parcels, 2 million hectares of land is out of production due to excessive fragmentation and agricultural land have more than 40 million shareholders. Due to the improper shape and forms of parcels increase machine power and labor utilization, as well as the cost of input, and consequently, the objective of efficient and productive use of land resources cannot be achieved. Land consolidation practices consist of addressing collectively he implementation are of the consolidation project, along with the reorganization of parcels based on road and irrigation networks, infrastructure services such as motorways, railways, airports, conservation areas, ecological corridors, transportation to pastures, arrangement of village settlements, irrigation water, drinking water and sewerage. The consolidation projects have positive economic contributions based on a comparison of the present value of the economic gains each year and one time economic gains to be achieved by such projects to the total costs of projects. However, significant developments have been achieved in multi-purpose land consolidation studies in Turkey as well as in developed countries. With multi-purpose land consolidation, it is possible to solve many ownership (shareholding), cadastre, environmental, and social quality at the local level. In this study, firstly the development and macro-effects of land consolidation activities were evaluated and economic, environmental and social effects of projects were evaluated within the framework of the Eskiehir Province, Beyazaltn Village Land Consolidation Project in the second phase and an economic benefit to cost analysis of the projects was made. The current use situation of the land and water resources and the post-project changes in the project area have been examined and the importance of water saving in irrigation areas due to the fact that highest water losses occur during irrigation, the importance of water saving in irrigation areas and the impacts of land consolidation on effective use of irrigation water and water saving and other benefits have been evaluated. The topics of participation of owners and other stakeholders in the planning stages of the projects; development of local measures for rural development; producing maps and data for the region; establishment of a parcel information system; evaluation of state land; cadastral renewal; solution of property problems; creation of large parcels; environmental solutions (such as creating ecological corridors and preserving historic buildings); rehabilitation of irrigation projects; preparation of land use plans; design and construction of in-field services; development and implementation of village settlement plans were examined based on the results of the field study. In principle, there is a requirement to determine the problems with a participatory approach with social survey reports before the projects of consolidation and inquire all related institutions for their opinions. As results, it has been found that current situation analysis work has not been done well in the process of deciding on the implementation of many projects in the last decade and the economic and social impacts expected from the projects have been neglected. In the project area analyzed in these conditions, the land assets and number of parcels of the households, land income and economic, social and environmental impact of the project were analyzed before and after the application and according to the result of benefit-cost analysis, economic contribution of the project was found to be high. In the impact assessment study, both the official institution records and the results of the survey study implemented in the project area were used, and the positive and negative economic, social and environmental impacts of project implementation were listed and suggestions for improvement of the consolidation policies based on problem analysis were put forward.
    Keywords: assessment of the effects of projects; land consolidation; Land Market; multi-purpose land consolidation policies; sellection of project area
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2019–01–01

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