nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2019‒08‒19
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Inventions and Scientific Discoveries: Impact of Designers’ Collaborations on Creativity. An Analysis Towards Fixation Effects By Quentin Plantec; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  2. International City Network and Public-Private Cooperation Japanese Public Water Services’ Overseas Expansion By Naoki FUJIWARA
  3. Climate Adaptation and Resiliency Planning: Agency Roles and Workforce Development By Dowds, Jonathan; Aultman-Hall, Lisa; Vallett, Carol; McRae, Glenn
  4. ICT and Ethical Finance: Fostering Social Innovation and Financial Inclusion By Gian-Luca GASPARINI; Aurora PROSPERO
  5. We Can Get There From Here: New Perspectives on Transportation Equity By Karner, Alex; Rowangould, Dana; London, Jonathan
  6. What Explains the Uptake of Development Interventions? By Lennart Kaplan; Jana Kuhnt; Katharina Richert; Sebastian Vollmer
  7. Quantifying benefit losses from poor governance of climate change adaptation projects: A discrete choice experiment with farmers in Kenya By Nthambi, Mary; Wätzold, Frank; Markova-Nenova, Nonka

  1. By: Quentin Plantec (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI)); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Scientific discoveries and inventions have long been established as two distinct and sequential activities. It has nonetheless been showed that projects aiming at producing both scientific discoveries and inventions could record impressive results. Our investigations are focusing on the creativity of collaborations outputs: a first agent is entailed to design a scientific discovery and another one invention. We use fixation effects as a performance measurement indicator for creativity based on Design Theory. We propose a first set of elements that can be suffering from fixation effects in both invention and scientific models designers reasoning. We propose a series of defixed inputs that could be shared between both designers to overcome their fixation effects. We highlight that if partners are engaged in one-way knowledge transfer it can conduct to "fixation traps". We define a set of restrictive conditions that could conduct to a "cross-defixation process": both actors would be able to create conjoint new inventions and scientific models in the non-fixed design path. In particular this process does not required designers to be defixed before starting the collaboration.
    Keywords: Innovation,Creativity,Human behaviour in design,Science,C-K design theory
    Date: 2019–08–05
  2. By: Naoki FUJIWARA (Associate Professor, Faculty of Regional Development Studies, Otemon Gakuin University, Osaka, Japan)
    Abstract: Urbanization has progressed in parallel with rapid economic development in Asia, and people living in the region’s megacities face severe urban environmental problems, with the water-environment problem being especially serious. Such cities must develop the infrastructure to provide clean water and process sewage in densely populated areas. Meanwhile, water-supply and sewerage services in Japan are conducted by municipalities as a public service, but their revenues are shrinking in response to a decreasing birthrate, an aging population, and the waterconservation movement. In this study, we investigated the overseas expansion of Japanese public water services as an effort to improve the living environment in developing Asian countries and to advance the sustainability of public water services. The research methods included scrutinizing preliminary research, conducting case studies through text analysis of materials issued by national and local governments, and conducting interviews with municipalities. We examined four urban municipal water services, including ones in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, and Kitakyushu, that developed publicprivate cooperative platform associations for expanding abroad. As a result of the research, we first identified the overseas expansion of public water services as a collaborative model—based on an international inter-city network—for solving urban problems. Japan’s water-related public and private sectors have a motivation to share their technologies and experiences of solving urban waterrelated environmental problems with the growing cities of Asia, but it is difficult for Japanese public water services to sustain a unilateral contribution to developing countries because their business environment is becoming less hospitable in a shrinking domestic market. Therefore, with national governmental support, major municipal water services in Japan have aimed to expand their business abroad to achieve regional economic development, relying on trust based on the solidarity and cooperation of the international cities to reduce the transaction cost of international water-related project development. Second, we clarify that the public-private cooperative platform established by the leadership of municipalities enhances the accountability and transparency of the overseas expansion projects of public water services. Municipalities hold themselves accountable to be fair to citizens and stakeholders. The Public and private cooperative platform established by Japanese public water service, as an intermediate organization, not only develops the implementation capacity but also strengthens accountability and transparency of the international public water service 5 expansion projects’ sharing information about the water-environment problems of each cities and selecting project partner companies. Third, we find that the international city networks that municipalities build are evolving from one-to-one mutual networks to multilateral networks. To date, municipalities have developed international sister-city networks that centered more on cultural and educational administrative exchanges. Recent years, however, have witnessed the rise of more pragmatic city networks that focus on problem-solving city liaisons. Municipalities are realizing the efficiency of mutual project-making and of participating in international associations or organizations of cities for specific purposes. They even organize international meetings or conferences at which they seek business partner cities, promote their environment technologies to their region, and enhance their brand images as regional technology hubs.
    Keywords: cooperative platform, accountability, multilateral network
    JEL: L32 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–09
  3. By: Dowds, Jonathan; Aultman-Hall, Lisa; Vallett, Carol; McRae, Glenn
    Abstract: Because climate change is increasing the intensity and frequency of many extreme weather events, climate adaptation and resiliency planning are increasingly important tasks for transportation agencies at all levels of government. Considering the variety of events that impact the transportation system, transportation professionals must consider a host of different adaptation actions, ranging from changes in maintenance and communication procedures to changes in design and even the relocation or replacement of infrastructure. The importance and complexity of this work is spurring a rapid expansion of new adaptation tools and numerous adaptation pilot projects. The roles for different types of agencies in implementing these measures have yet to be clearly delineated. Moreover, while workforce development in transportation is recognized as a critical issue, relatively little is currently known about the specific workforce development needs for climate adaptation. This policy brief summarizes findings from the Climate Adaptation Planning Survey (CAPS), an online survey of planners and other professionals conducted in June 2015, that assessed the adaptation planning capacity, the adequacy of technical tools, and current preparation levels of local and state agencies, as well as the workforce development needs faced by transportation planning agencies as they increasingly focus their work on adaptation to climate change. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Climate change, Continuing education, Disaster resilience, Government agencies, Labor force, Network analysis (Planning), Surveys, Transportation planning, Transportation system management, Weather
    Date: 2018–07–01
  4. By: Gian-Luca GASPARINI (SEFEA Consulting, Padua, Italy); Aurora PROSPERO (SEFEA Consulting, Padua, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper describes the links between ethical and responsible finance and social innovation. The two have long been in a close relationship. Ethical and responsible finance has traditionally supported projects that face difficulties in the mainstream banking sector, fostering experimental approaches (to give but an example) to market failures of traditional welfare. Moreover, ethical and responsible finance is interested not only on the economic viability of a project to fund, but also its social and/or environmental impact.The additional dimension brought about by the impact of the activities of ethical and responsible finance is social innovation. This potentially encompass several disciplines, phenomena and social constructs, which makes it difficult to analyse. However, interest in social innovation is increasing, especially concerning digital social innovation. After the theoretical analysis, the focus shifts to the PROFIT platform, presented as a practical example of ICT response to the need for improving the financial knowledge and literacy of the citizens for better decision-making and social resilience. During the creation of the platform, its creators have taken the diversity of the potential beneficiaries into account, in order to be useful for as many social groups as possible. The paper concludes with an analysis of the digital social innovation potential of the PROFIT platform.
    Keywords: ethical finance; responsible finance; social innovation; social impact; PROFIT, online platform; financial literacy
    JEL: A13 A20 I22 O32
    Date: 2019–11
  5. By: Karner, Alex; Rowangould, Dana; London, Jonathan
    Abstract: Disparities in the distribution of transportation system benefits and burdens are significant and have persisted despite the efforts of many to reduce or eliminate them. Although transportation plans and projects must be assessed for their distributive effects in accordance with U.S. laws and regulatory guidance, these analyses rarely uncover findings that result in changes to decisions already made or the creation of entirely new projects or policies. This outcome is due in part to limitations associated with transportation governance institutions including metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), specifically those related to inequitable access to political power and representation. It is also due to methodological choices and limitations in the quantitative analyses that are conducted to understand (and ideally avoid or mitigate) impacts. This policy brief summarizes findings from the white paper that assesses academic research and transportation planning practice to provide a shared understanding of the definitions, challenges, and opportunities in this field, thereby enabling often-conflicting parties to collaborate in achieving a common goal: transportation equity. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Accessibility, Demographics, Environmental quality, Equity (Justice), Land use planning, Mode choice, Policy analysis, Public health, Public transit, Quality of life, Travel behavior
    Date: 2018–06–01
  6. By: Lennart Kaplan; Jana Kuhnt; Katharina Richert; Sebastian Vollmer
    Abstract: A crucial prerequisite for the success of development interventions is their uptake in the targeted population. We use the setup of an intervention conducted in Indonesia and Pakistan to investigate dis-/incentivizing factors for program’s uptake and support. Making use of a framework grounded in psychological theory, “The Theory of Planned Behaviour,” we consider three determinants for intervention uptake: personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use. As most development interventions are characterized by a cooperation among local and international agents, we investigate further a potentially important dis-/incentivizing factor: the salience of the implementer’s background. Our findings show that attitudes, important others and ease of intervention use are indeed associated with increased uptake in our two culturally different settings. Conducting a framed field experiment in Indonesia we show further that the study population in the Acehnese context exhibits higher levels of support for the project if the participation of international actors is highlighted. We find that previous experience with the respective actor is pivotal. To strengthen supportive behaviour by the target population for locally led projects, it is essential to strengthen local capabilities to create positive experiences. Hence, our results encourage development research and cooperation, first, to consider personal attitudes, the social influence of important others and the perceived ease of intervention use in the design of interventions in order to increase uptake. Second, depending on the country context, implementers should consider the previous experience with and attitude towards partners – either local or international – when aiming to achieve behavioural change.
    Keywords: Theory of Planned Behaviour; Framed Field Experiment; Implementation Research; Public Health
  7. By: Nthambi, Mary; Wätzold, Frank; Markova-Nenova, Nonka
    Abstract: Climate change impacts pose a great challenge to agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa as droughts become more frequent and more severe. A major roadblock to implementing climate change adaptation measures is poor governance. Given their experience with governing organizations, farmers are highly suitable respondents to assess the appropriateness of different governing organizations to implement adaptation measures on the ground. We surveyed 300 farmers in Makueni County in Kenya applying the choice experiment method to assess their preferences in relation to different attributes of a sand storage dam project to enhance rainwater harvesting as an adaptation measure. Attributes include the organization governing the dam construction, dam wall height and volume of water harvested, the type of pump used to distribute water, number of tree rows planted to prevent silting, and labor time farmers are willing to contribute to dam construction. Responses were analyzed using the mixed logit model. Our key result shows that farmers prefer an NGO as the governing organization, followed closely by a farmer network and, with some distance, a government institution. For the whole of Makueni County, we find that benefit losses of $ 482,766 occur if farmer networks are the governing organizations instead of NGOs and $ 2,679,706 if government institutions govern the dam construction instead of NGOs. While the importance of governance structures for development is well-known, our study is novel as it quantifies the benefit losses that occur due to poor governance in the field of climate change adaptation. On a methodological level, our study contributes to improving the application of choice experiments in developing countries as it draws attention to the careful selection of the payment vehicle. In terms of policy recommendations, our results suggest that substantial benefit losses may occur if appropriate governing organizations are not selected when implementing much needed climate adaptation measures.
    Keywords: Good governance, climate change adaptation measures, governing organizations, choice modeling, payment vehicle, willingness to pay
    JEL: Q5 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2018–12–18

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