nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2018‒12‒17
nine papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  2. Public Private Partnerships: Strategic Assets and Managerial Models By Achard, Paola Olimpia; Di Berardino, Antonina
  3. Towards a new paradigm of “coopetitiveness” in emerging countries: Case of the Algerian Entrepreneurial Ecosystems By Abdelkader Baaziz
  4. Learning from Failures: Optimal Contract for Experimentation and Production By Fahad Khalil; Jacques Lawarree; Alexander Rodivilov
  5. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 14 - Disbursement performance of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD): an in-depth analysis of drivers and trends By Winters, P.; Scalzo, S.; Mallia, P.; Higgins, D.; Balint, T.
  6. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 12 - An evidence-based assessment of IFAD’s end-of-project reporting By Garbero, A.; Carneiro, B.
  7. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 31 - Impact of modern irrigation on household production and welfare outcomes: evidence from the participatory small-scale irrigation development programme (PASIDP) project in Ethiopia By Garbero, A.; Songsermsawas, T.
  8. What is it like for a middle manager to take safety into account? Practices and challenges By Tiziana Callari; Corinne Bieder; Barry Kirwan
  9. Impact of Decentralized Electrification Projects on Sustainable Development: A Meta-Analysis By Jean-Claude Berthelemy; Arnaud Millien

  1. By: Romain Allais (APESA - Association Pour l'Environnement et la Sécurité en Aquitaine - APESA, Pacte, Laboratoire de sciences sociales - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - UJF - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1 - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes); Julie Gobert (LEESU - Laboratoire Eau Environnement et Systèmes Urbains - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, INSA Strasbourg - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées - Strasbourg - INSA - Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, LAB'URBA - LAB'URBA - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: System innovation for sustainability requires system and multidisciplinary approach. Current assessment tools are mainly disciplinary and support the assessment of material flows in terms of environmental impacts or economical flows for example. These tools provide helpful quantitative information for system (re)-design but do not explicitly question the value creation factors whereas models derived from financial analysis do so (both quantitative and qualitative assessment). A material and immaterial resource flows model coupled with extended scorecar d to support both the analysis and structuration of territorial projects will be useful to better understand, qualify and quantify the different kinds of resources revealed, mobilized or denied during a project. The aim of this communication is to present the conceptual background for the model development and then to present its partial applications in i n-dustrial cases. Benefits, limits and further development will be also discussed. This model is built on the five dimensions sustainable transition method ology (5D-STM) and the multidisciplinary method for sustainability assessment. It enables both the representation of the tangibles and intangible assets mobilized during the emergence and structuration of territorial projects (e.g. business model transitio n to functional economy) and sustainability assessment of existing projects (e.g. industrial and territorial ecology projects). This model is still under development but appears to strengthen strategic analysis and potentially support the integration of sustainability within territorial projects but is not sufficient by itself. It can be used as a tool to support decision-making if integrated within a larger transition-oriented methodology.
    Date: 2018–05–22
  2. By: Achard, Paola Olimpia; Di Berardino, Antonina
    Abstract: Most of existing contributions on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) refer to a traditional and financial perspective, or rather to an unbalanced strategic relationship between the public and the private actors. Starting from a PPP traditional definition, the objective of the paper is to analyze: a) the strategic and managerial challenges and changes in the PPP concept, highlighting the institutional lens of investigation; b) the critical role of shared PPP strategies for the long-term sustainability; c) the value generated and shared for the societal wealth and wellbeing. The paper is divided into three sub-sections. The first one is aimed at shortly analyzing the institutional framework and the sectorial trend and distribution of PPPs. The second one highlights the strategic assets, the managerial approach to PPPs, and the relevance of the multi-stakeholder engagement. The followed approach consists in the multidimensionality analysis of the PPP role and models, according to the necessity to manage uncertainty and create shared value for the direct stakeholders and the indirect ones. The last section introduces the ZTE incidence case, describing the 5G project of L'Aquila (Abruzzi).
    Keywords: public-private partnership,PPP,strategic and managerial approaches,shared value,ZTE,L'Aquila
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Abdelkader Baaziz (IMSIC - Institut mediterranéen des sciences de l'information et de la communication - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to propose thinking tracks of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems based on a "Quintuple Helix" approach that overcomes the competitive partitions by founding a paradigm of "coopetition" and "coopetitiveness" through the "intelligent specialization" with a strong societal and economic impact. Indeed, the dominant vision in most of emerging countries calls the relationship between Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and their actors, exclusively in terms of competitiveness aspects by reproducing identically the North-American models unlinked to the environmental dissimilarities, such as entrepreneurial culture. However, it is important to enquiring about the spatiotemporal adaptability of this model in the emerging countries contexts, particularly through its uninhibited relationship to the concepts of individual success and failure as well as the ecosystems running based mainly on private financing from business angels, crowdfunding and venture capital investors. While the creation of a startup is administratively facilitated, the uncertainties of the environment put its sustainability in a severe test. The causes are numerous, we cite among others, the difficulty of these startups to fit into a multidisciplinary working mode, hence the necessity to integrate them in the value chain of an ecosystem where they answer efficiently to mutualized and specific R&D needs. That's why we propose to identify the main barriers to open innovation as well as the catalysts enabling the creation of the integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems. By borrowing the paradigm of the city, we highlight the "urbanized" ecosystem made up of "useful" and "specialized" blocks, integrated in the value chain of this ecosystem. We will show the viability of the proposed tracks through many cases of economic, societal and academic actions undertaken in Algeria in order to setting up a favorable environment of integrative entrepreneurial ecosystems.
    Keywords: Useful blocks,Specialized blocks,Urbanized ecosystem,Coopetitiveness,Coopetition,Quintuple Helix,Entrepreneurial ecosystem,Algerian entrepreneurial ecosystem,Ecosystem's Value Chain,Intelligent specialization,Mutualized R&D,Ambidextrous capabilities
    Date: 2018–11–09
  4. By: Fahad Khalil; Jacques Lawarree; Alexander Rodivilov
    Abstract: Before embarking on a project, a principal must often rely on an agent to learn about its profitability. We model this learning as a two-armed bandit problem and highlight the interaction between learning (experimentation) and production. We derive the optimal contract for both experimentation and production when the agent has private information about his efficiency in experimentation. This private information in the experimentation stage generates asymmetric information in the production stage even though there was no disagreement about the profitability of the project at the outset. The degree of asymmetric information is endogenously determined by the length of the experimentation stage. An optimal contract uses the length of experimentation, the production scale, and the timing of payments to screen the agents. Due to the presence of an optimal production decision after experimentation, we find over-experimentation to be optimal. The asymmetric information generated during experimentation makes over-production optimal. An efficient type is rewarded early since he is more likely to succeed in experimenting, while an inefficient type is rewarded at the very end of the experimentation stage. This result is robust to the introduction of ex post moral hazard.
    Keywords: information gathering, optimal contracts, strategic experimentation
    JEL: D82 D83 D86
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Winters, P.; Scalzo, S.; Mallia, P.; Higgins, D.; Balint, T.
    Abstract: This paper investigates the trends and the influencing factors of IFAD’s project disbursement performance over the past 20 years. Based on data from 577 projects in 111 countries, the study finds that disbursement of funds are often delayed and time-consuming. Using econometric analysis, the study assesses the internal and external factors affecting the amount and timeliness of disbursements, and provides important lessons on how international financial institutions such as IFAD can better monitor and manage this important aspect of their development effectiveness.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Garbero, A.; Carneiro, B.
    Abstract: Project Completion Reports (PCRs) are used by development institutions to tell a project’s story – achievements, failures and learning. As such, they should provide evidence of effectiveness in bringing about development. But is this the case? This article uses a descriptive content analysis approach to assess the extent of evidentiary support presented in IFAD end-of-project documentation. It employs a custom conceptual framework to classify claims about project results found in PCRs based on the results level, presence and types of evidence sources, and themes. Findings show that the majority of claims relate to output- or outcome-level results and are not explicitly supported by evidence. The lack of evidence-based reporting carries implications to the objective measurement of development effectiveness.
    Keywords: Agribusiness
    Date: 2017
  7. By: Garbero, A.; Songsermsawas, T.
    Abstract: Investments in irrigation systems have been shown to substantially improve farmers’ productivity, and thus alleviate poverty. This study provides an example of such an investment: the Participatory Small-Scale Irrigation Development Programme. The project institutionalized water user associations, developed small-scale irrigation schemes, and provided agricultural training activities to smallholder farmers in drought-prone and food-deficit areas in four regions of Ethiopia. Combining a primary household survey with geographical data, this work estimates the project impact on agricultural production and household expenditure using a novel identification strategy. Beneficiaries' gains include improved crop yields and greater diversity of crops cultivated. These gains have the potential to raise revenues and enable a switch from subsistence to purchasing more food from the market. The lessons learned from this study, by highlighting the need to focus on strengthening access to market, in conjunction with the irrigation infrastructural support, have the potential to improve the design and implementation of future small-scale irrigation projects. The added focus on access to markets would provide greater opportunities to projects beneficiaries by maximising farmers' improved productive capacity.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Tiziana Callari (Department of Computer Science - Trinity College Dublin - University of Dublin); Corinne Bieder (ENAC - Ecole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile); Barry Kirwan (Eurocontrol - Eurocontrol)
    Abstract: Aviation today is seen as a very safe industry, yet recent accidents have shown that vulnerabilities still exist. The literature has often drawn attention to the role played by top managers/CEO in running their businesses profitably, and at the same time keeping them safe from threats. Research has also investigated the way people at the sharp-end of organisations are ‘mindful' of the possible threats that can occur in their day-to-day activities, and how they can anticipate (most of) them. But what about the role played by middle managers in ensuring safety in every organisational operation? Even if researchers now agree that middle managers' actions are a valuable asset for organisations and central to pursuing key organisational outcomes, very little is known about how middle managers take safety into account in their daily operations, and the challenges they face. This paper reports on the safety-related practices and challenges of middle managers of the civil aviation industry. Within the Future Sky Safety project, over a two-year research activity, 48 middle managers from a range of aviation organisations agreed to talk about the strategies and actions they put in place on a routine basis, to embed safety in the daily operations. Methodologically, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the qualitative content analysis (QCA) method was used to make sense of the raw material, through a data-driven coding frame. The findings of this research suggest that the practices middle managers identify as central in relation to their role in the management of safety can be grouped into three high-level categories: (1) making decisions, (2) influencing key stakeholders to get the job done, and (3) managing information. This research adds knowledge in relation to the middle managers' role in the management of safety, in particular shedding light on the competency that middle managers from the civil aviation industry rely on to get the job done when it comes to contributing to safety
    Keywords: Safety management,Qualitative content analysis,NVivo,Management practice,Aviation,Safety,Middle managers
    Date: 2019–03
  9. By: Jean-Claude Berthelemy (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Arnaud Millien (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper is the first product of a project which aims to build a Collaborative Smart Mapping of Mini-grid Action (CoSMMA), whose principal objective is to identify best practice in decentralized electrification projects. By evaluation of 421 projects, from published research papers, we have built a pilot CoSMMA which proves its feasibility. Its relevance is demonstrated by a meta-analysis, which reveals the principal characteristics of decentralized electrification projects which have positive impacts on sustainable development. Four main characteristics were considered: technology (source or energy), system size (power), decision level (from local to country level), geographic location. When searching for best practice, technology and system size must be considered together, because the chosen technology may constrain the power, which is provided by the system. We find that the most popular projects, which are based on Solar Home Systems (SHS) are not the most effective. The problem with SHS is not the use of solar energy, but the small system size often chosen for SHS. Mini-grids, of larger size, especially those which use hybrid renewable sources of energy, have more positive impacts, because these systems combine the benefits of sustainability and flexibility. In terms of decision level, we find that both top-down and bottom-up approaches have advantages, with the observation of a U-shaped curve for the influence of the decision level on the probability of obtaining positive impacts. Geographical location matters, as it is very often the key to system feasibility. We find that DEPs are more effective in Latin America than in Asia, and more effective in Asia than in Africa. We also attempted to study the type of effects resulting from DEPs. Descriptive data suggest that for some types of effects, positive impacts are more likely than for others. Decentralized electrification projects have a more positive impact on Lifestyle & NICT or Household agenda than on Economic transformation or Community life. However, this pilot CoSMMA does not contain enough information to study precisely the types of effects, because some types of effects have not been studied frequently in the existing literature. This is the case, for instance, for environmental effects, which have been rarely measured scientifically. Finally, we attempted to broaden our information set by including expert data, which was entered into the CoSMMA meta-analysis. We define expert data as data that are not supported by statistical tests with measures of significance, whereas the evaluations based on scientific data were supported by statistical tests of significance. The expert data may be valid, but our attempt to include it in the analysis failed at this stage. The determinants of unproven effects appear to be quite different from the determinants of proven effects in our meta-analysis, and using expert data would imply merging proven and unproven effects, which would totally blur the conclusions.
    Keywords: Decentralized electrification,sustainable development,impact assessment,meta-analysis
    Date: 2018–11–15

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