nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2018‒12‒10
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Open Innovation System and Entrepreneurship: A case study of the Offshore Renewable Energy By Paul Igwe; Chioma Vivienne Nwokoro
  2. Co-investments and African infrastructure deficit: Understanding and mitigating political risks in Conflicts Affected and Fragile States By Nawo, Larissa; Njangang, Henri
  3. Opening Argentina to public-private partnerships: Opportunities and risks for government entities and private investors By Schüle, Ulrich; Liening-Ewert, F.; Schäffer, D.
  4. Rural Affordable Rental Housing : Quantifying Need, Reviewing Recent Federal Support, and Assessing the Use of Low Income Housing Tax Credits in Rural Areas By Andrew M. Dumont
  5. The Mobile Sprout Wagon - an innovative new approach to improving pupil?s health through interdisciplinary hands-on food activities By Anna Marie Fisker; Anna Eva Utke Heilmann; Nini Camilla Bagger

  1. By: Paul Igwe (University of Lincoln); Chioma Vivienne Nwokoro (Eastern Palm University)
    Abstract: This article examines the innovation in the offshore renewable energy (ORE) industry using Open Innovation System (OIS), platforms and network perspective. Despite the benefits of ORE, Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs account for up to one-third of total wind energy project lifecycle expenditure requiring relationships with multiple external partners to improve the supply chain and O&M activities. Therefore, management of the O&M activities of the supply chain and logistics has become an excellent place to drive efficiency and reduce cost thereby creating innovative products and services, business clusters and job opportunities. Findings show how strategic resources help offshore companies to reduce cost and achieve environmental, economic and social benefit derived from ORE. The OIS is used to explain the importance of new resources in technology, knowledge sharing and relationships, and stresses the role of stakeholders in addressing the challenges. The limitation of this study is related to reliance on secondary data. However, it provided an opportunity to elaborate on OIS theory and reinforces the importance of knowledge sharing, collaboration and network advantage. Overall, this provided insights into the constituent resources needed for successful OIS, regional entrepreneurship and helps move renewable energy research from a technological advancement challenges to a problem of strategic resources and relational capabilities.
    Keywords: Open Innovation System, Regional Entrepreneurship, Dynamic Capabilities, Renewable Energy
    JEL: Q55 R38 Q28
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Nawo, Larissa; Njangang, Henri
    Abstract: This article through a qualitative assessment identifies political risks confronted by FDI in infrastructures project in African Conflicts Affected and Fragile (CAF) States and studies the structure for infrastructures financing which allows lessening political risks. Outside hydrocarbon sector which remains attractive even in a worse political context, African CAF regions infrastructures sector as other sectors remain unattractive to foreign investors. By considering global investors’ weak preferences for CAF countries infrastructures assets, due to high levels of political risks, we argue that: to fill the CAF States’ infrastructure gap and addressing at the same time political risks concern, an optimal solution is located in a strategic tricky balance between African SWFs as kick-started, Multi-Development Banks (MDBs) (like MIGA agency under the World Bank Group) and long-term institutional investors like foreign SWFs. In the initial phase, MDBs with both their flexibility and experience ought to help finance the riskiest phases of infrastructure projects after African SWFs have to identified bankable projects. In the second period, MDBs ought to disengage and transfer their mature green infrastructure projects to secure the path for a workable involvement of long-term institutional investors such as sovereign wealth funds. With the aim to foster a vast African infrastructure bonds’ markets in which the African CAF States could play a pivotal role, strengthening rules of law (regulatory and legal frames) should begin straightaway
    Keywords: Sovereign wealth Funds, Africa, CAF States, Political risks, infrastructure financing, co-investments, Multi-Development Banks (MDBs)
    JEL: D61 D74 G32 H54 O55
    Date: 2018–11–29
  3. By: Schüle, Ulrich; Liening-Ewert, F.; Schäffer, D.
    Abstract: Since the presidential elections in November 2015, Argentina's economic system has shifted back to a more neo-liberal paradigm. After more than 15 years of "neodesarrollismo" characterized by large scepticism towards inward FDI, the country opens up to international investment into infrastructure. With a new law adopted in early 2017, Argentina promotes public-private-partnership (PPP) projects. The expectations in Argentina vary from the belief that inward FDI will significantly contribute to the modernization of infrastructure to the fear that PPP projects will surrender the country to the interest of international capital. Even though the government believes that the ambitious National Infrastructure Plan with intended investment of US-$69bn in transport and energy infrastructure cannot be achieved without PPP projects, a critical analysis of the conditions under which PPP projects may be successfully applied in Argentina, is yet missing. In order to identify such conditions, a triangulation of three research methods was chosen: First, cases in Europe and Latin America were analysed in order to identify key success factors and arrangements correlated with project deficiencies. The focus was on contractual arrangements of risk distribution between stake holders and impediments to cash flow analysis. Second, documentary analysis was applied to examine the regulatory and institutional environment in Argentina. Third, in-depth interviews with 22 experts from Europe and Latin America were conducted. The experts represented the major stake holders in PPP projects: officials from government procurement, lawyers, bank representatives, and managers of project companies and major suppliers. As a result, conditions for a successful application of the PPP concept in Argentina's road and underground railway infrastructure as well as in integrated waste management systems were derived. The research was carried out in the framework of a bi-national Master program in International Business run by the Hochschule Mainz (Germany) and UCES, Buenos Aires.
    Keywords: Public-Private-Partnership (PPP),risk allocation,Argentina,infrastructure,FDI,multiple case study
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Andrew M. Dumont
    Abstract: Recently, there has been significant interest in the high levels of rental cost burden being experienced across the United States. Much of this scholarship has focused on rental cost burdens in larger urban areas, or at the national level, and has not explored differences in the prevalence of rental cost burden in urban versus rural communities. In this paper, I find that rental cost burdens are a challenge facing both urban and rural communities. However, despite the need for affordable rental housing in rural communities identified, I find the amount of resources made available by the federal government to address this challenge are at a low point relative to recent history. My analysis of federal resource availability also finds one program has been an important and resilient tool for the development and preservation of affordable housing in urban and rural communities: the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program. Congress delegated much of the LIHTC program’s implementation to the states, whereby states choose many of the factors to prioritize when allocating LIHTCs to specific projects. Therefore, I explored each state’s qualified allocation plan to identify whether specific factors make it more or less likely rural areas will receive a “fair share” of LIHTC allocations based on their need relative to non-rural areas. My analysis did not identify a specific factor or set of factors that systematically increased or decreased the likelihood of allocations being proportionate to the relative needs of a state’s rural communities. However, I did identify a number of factors that by their very design appeared to affect positively or negatively the likelihood that specific types of projects or project locations would receive allocations. Interviews with industry stakeholders confirmed that many of these factors are affecting developer decisions and may be unintentionally disadvantaging smaller, more remote rural projects.
    Keywords: Government expenditures (federal) ; Housing affordability ; Housing supply ; Rural ; Tax credits
    JEL: R21 I32 R31 I38 H53 I31 R10
    Date: 2018–11–14
  5. By: Anna Marie Fisker (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg); Anna Eva Utke Heilmann (Department of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg); Nini Camilla Bagger (Deprtment of Civil Engineering, University of Aalborg)
    Abstract: In today?s society there is a tendency that children are increasingly more and more detached and disconnected from the food they are eating; the origins of its components, and the process ?farm to fork?. This is an issue with wide-reaching consequences to health. In this paper we will seek to answer the questions: How is it possible to create new innovative and interdisciplinary teaching approaches, that enhances the pupils? understanding of food and a healthier lifestyle? And how can we develop interdisciplinary methods and learning tools that can be implemented as hands-on activities in multiple school subjects? To answer these questions we will introduce Learn4Health, an EU Erasmus+ Strategic Partnership with the aim of creating, strengthening and sustaining health, nutrition and food literacy among pupils in primary and secondary schools in Europe. We will discuss three of the projects created within Learn4Health, and their content, structure and use, and further, analyse their innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to the issues at hand. Next, we will highlight one of these projects, the mobile Sprout Wagon as a prime example. The Sprout Wagon, with its unique mobile construction provides pupils with hands-on learning contexts in multiple school subjects, placing food, nutrition and health on the schedule, and we will discuss how this new, innovative and interdisciplinary approach, can be used as an effective tool inside the classroom to support and facilitate learning in multiple school subjects. Finally, on this background we will present the detailed instructional guides and teaching material which will be developed during the process of the Sprout Wagon and the other Learn4Health projects and which will all be included in the HOFA Handbook - an instructional handbook which will be freely available on the Learn4Health website at the end of the project period. This dissemination strategy will ensure that the insights, innovative approaches, knowledge and experiences will be shared across the borders, thereby securing sustainability of the project and creating wide-reaching impact ? and, ultimately, happier, more food literate children.
    Keywords: Health, children, food, food systems, nutrition, problem-based learning
    JEL: I00 C90 D69
    Date: 2018–10

This nep-ppm issue is ©2018 by Arvi Kuura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.