nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2018‒08‒27
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. "A Proposed Model for Improving R&D Project Performance in the Medical Devices Industry" By Yann Mey Yee
  2. Informal social ties and relationship orientation in Korean business exchanges: A content analysis of ten inter-organizational research collaborations By Hemmert, Martin; Kim, Jae-Jin
  3. Time Compression (Dis)Economies: An Empirical Analysis By Hawk, Ashton; Pacheco-de-Almeida, Gonçalo
  4. Supporting the Dance Sector. Does Efficiency Clash with Success When Programming? By Maria Jose Del Barrio-Tellado; Luis Cesar Herrero-Prieto
  5. Valuation as Promise and Care: The Use of Accounting in the Entrepreneurial Economy By Mouritsen, Jan; Pflueger, Dane
  6. Does the NIH Fund Edge Science? By Mikko Packalen; Jay Bhattacharya
  7. Alleviating the Barriers to Domestic Investment in Addis Ababa: Underlying Causes and Proposed Solutions By Berihu Assefa; Mulu Gebre-eyesus; Firew Weldeyes

  1. By: Yann Mey Yee (Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia Author-2-Name: Cheng Ling Tan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Graduate School of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia Author-3-Name: T. Ramayah Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective – The Research and Development (R&D) projects of medical devices are unique, partly due to the lengthy regulatory process to obtain new product approval depending on the device's risk category and clinical trials required. Despite the establishment of multiple control mechanisms in the medical devices industry, defective medical devices are often known to exist. The main objective of this paper is to propose a framework linking organisational factors (top management support, incentive system, infrastructure, training, and collaboration) as predictors of medical devices in regards to R&D project performance. Efficient R&D project management can reduce project lead time by shortening the critical path of the entire product development, thus increasing the R&D project success rate. Besides identifying critical organisational factors, organisational culture is recognised as a potential moderator between organisational factors and R&D project performance. Methodology/Technique – The literature reviewed shows the innovation-friendly culture (clan culture and adhocracy culture), which prospectively influences the degree of an organisation's creativity. Findings – Four distinct R&D project success criteria (cost performance, schedule performance, quality performance and stakeholder satisfaction) are identified as the key performance measurements in the medical devices industry. A literature review to support the proposed model within the context of the medical devices industry is given in this paper. Novelty – The study contributes to measure performance of medical devices industry."
    Keywords: Medical Device; Organisational Culture; Organisational Factor; Project Performance; R&D.
    JEL: I15 I23
    Date: 2017–06–19
  2. By: Hemmert, Martin; Kim, Jae-Jin
    Abstract: We examine the role of informal social ties and of relationship orientation in two types of inter-organizational research collaborations in South Korea: new product development (NPD) collaborations and university-industry research collaborations (UICs). An in-depth content analysis of five NPD collaborations and five UICs reveals that whereas both informal social ties and relationship orientation are prevalent in research collaborations in Korea, they play different roles for relationship quality and collaboration outcomes. Informal social ties strongly vary in their types and strength, and enhance relationship quality and outcomes only when they are well-aligned with the task-specific requirements for a given collaboration. Relationship orientation manifests itself both in task-related and social exchanges between collaboration partners. A strong relationship resulting from such exchanges often enhances outcomes such as knowledge acquisition and business performance.
    Keywords: inter-organizational research collaboration,informal social ties,relationship orientation,relationship quality,knowledge acquisition,Korea
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Hawk, Ashton; Pacheco-de-Almeida, Gonçalo
    Abstract: To investigate time compression dis-economies (TCD), this study estimated time-cost elasticities using 459 oil and gas global investment projects (1997-2010). Results show that the average cost of accelerating investments is negative: a firm could cut $6.3 million in costs of a single project by accumulating asset stocks one month faster. About 88 percent of the projects exhibit negative time-cost elasticities with over 39 percent of unrealized economies of time compression. Only 12 percent of the projects are subject to TCD. These time inefficiencies or frictions do not negate the existence of TCD, but suggest they are less prevalent than assumed in the literature. Management experience, R&D investment, firm size, economic development and political stability are shown to be associated with greater time compression efficiency.
    Keywords: Sustainable Competitive Advantage; Temporal Frictions; Time Compression Diseconomies; Time Inefficiencies; Time-Cost Tradeoff
    JEL: D22 D24 L71 M11 M20
    Date: 2018–03–20
  4. By: Maria Jose Del Barrio-Tellado (Departamento de Economía Financiera y Contabilidad, University of Valladolid); Luis Cesar Herrero-Prieto (Department of Applied Economics, University of Valladolid)
    Abstract: Dance has received scant attention in economic literature perhaps because it is an activity that appears under a number of legal forms and diverse formats and due to the fact that –in many instances- it is affected by a high degree of instability time-wise, thus making it difficult to have the necessary data available required for economic analysis. Nevertheless, this sector’s dependence on public funding provides grounds for it to be the subject of performance related studies. This work aims to offer an evaluation process for a public project designed to spread dance in Spain. The project involves a number of stakeholders: public authorities, performance venues and dance companies. Each participant plays a role in the project: public authorities provide the funding while the theatres and dance companies offer the artistic idea that is taken to the audience. By applying Data Envelopment Analysis techniques (DEA), the present work seeks to evaluate the efficiency of the stakeholders involved in the project, as well as the efficiency of the programme itself by relating resources and objectives. We find that efficiency in resource performance often runs counter to other cultural aims such as increasing audiences or extending repertoire diversity.
    Keywords: Efficiency evaluation, dance sector, performing arts, data envelopment analysis, Spain
    JEL: Z11 C61 H44 L83
    Date: 2018–07
  5. By: Mouritsen, Jan; Pflueger, Dane
    Abstract: This is a study of analysts’ use of accounting information for valuation purposes in a venture capital setting. This setting is characterized in terms of the distinctive scouting and coaching work of venture capital funders, and the unproven and incomplete nature of the ventures and entrepreneurs, which seek funding to scale operations, pivot into new markets, internationalize, or undertake some other kind of fundamental change. Based on interviews with entrepreneurs (project-makers) and venture funders (analysts), a four phase model of valuation is proposed. The model illuminates that, in contrast with common assumptions in the existing literature, accounting is mobilized neither to reveal truth nor constitute knowledge about the objects of investment, but to promise and to care. This paper articulates these two concepts in the context of accounting. Promising is shown to be a means not to implement a predesigned business plan and a budgeted set of activities but to commit to a new and unclear future and agree high and sometimes unrealistic expectations. Caring is shown not to be a means to predict a final fate for the organization, but to give and take, interact and sometimes discipline in order to determine what is necessary to preserve and possible to change. Understanding that what is valued is not what exists but what is possible to create helps to resolve puzzles about accounting’s uncertain and ambiguous status and significance in the entrepreneurial economy. It also and more generally illustrates how accounting operates in relation to an unknowable object and future: not as a means to know or reveal but to write and rewrite a daring and ambitious narrative in which the protagonists (here the project-maker and venture) become something else (a manager and an organization).
    Keywords: Analysts; Valuation; Qualitative Research; Venture Capital
    JEL: C44 M41
    Date: 2018–03–14
  6. By: Mikko Packalen; Jay Bhattacharya
    Abstract: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) plays a critical role in funding scientific endeavors in biomedicine that would be difficult to finance via private sources. One important mandate of the NIH is to fund innovative science that tries out new ideas, but many have questioned the NIH’s ability to fulfill this aim. We examine whether the NIH succeeds in funding work that tries out novel ideas. We find that novel science is more often NIH funded than is less innovative science but this positive result comes with several caveats. First, despite the implementation of initiatives to support edge science, the preference for funding novel science is mostly limited to work that builds on novel basic science ideas; projects that build on novel clinical ideas are not favored by the NIH over projects that build on well-established clinical knowledge. Second, NIH’s general preference for funding work that builds on basic science ideas, regardless of its novelty or application area, is a large contributor to the overall positive link between novelty and NIH funding. If funding rates for work that builds on basic science ideas and work that builds on clinical ideas had been equal, NIH’s funding rates for novel and traditional science would have been the same. Third, NIH’s propensity to fund projects that build on the most recent advances has declined over the last several decades. Thus, in this regard NIH funding has become more conservative despite initiatives to increase funding for innovative projects.
    JEL: I15 O31
    Date: 2018–07
  7. By: Berihu Assefa (Ethiopian Development Research Institute); Mulu Gebre-eyesus (Ethiopian Development Research Institute); Firew Weldeyes (Ethiopian Development Research Institute)
    Abstract: Ethiopian Investment Commission (EIC) database shows that only 9.5% have become operational out of the total number of 80,419 domestic investment projects who received investment license in the last 25 years (1992-2017). The conversion rate of investment projects into operation in the capital city, Addis Ababa, is even much lower (only 6.4%) than the national average (9.5%). By any standard, this is one of the lowest investment conversion rates, and hence is quite worrying. This study tries to answer why above 90% of domestic investors were not able to move beyond the licensing stage to start operating and specifically identify the major constraints face by the domestic private investors. Unlike previous studies who rely on survey of existing firms, this study gathered information on the major constraints not only from successful ones but also from those investors got stacked or discouraged. A qualitative survey was conducted on a total of 42 firms (investors) in Addis Ababa mostly from manufacturing. The main finding of the study is that the key barriers to investment are related to lack of access to land, finance, regulatory and institutional inefficiency, poor infrastructure particularly power and lack of skills. The study contains a detailed manifestation of each of these problems. The overall implication is that the poor business environment is not only undermining exiting firms but also discouraging new investments and transition from project to operation. This study provides some policy suggestions on how to improve the low conversion rates and induce the development of a more dynamic domestic manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, investment, conversion rate, domestic, barrier, qualitative research
    JEL: E22
    Date: 2018–06

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