nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2018‒07‒09
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Knowledge management in Interreg cross-border cooperation: A project perspective By Marx, Susanne
  2. Results of the Assessment of the Utilization of the Motor Vehicle User's Charge in the Philippines By Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May, G.; Navarro, Adoracion, M.; Detros, Keith, C.
  3. Cooperative arrangements and cultural micro-enterprises. Three case studies By Philippe Henry
  4. Sustainability transitions in local communities: District heating, water systems and communal housing projects By Köhler, Jonathan Hugh; Hohmann, Claudia; Dütschke, Elizabeth
  5. Expertise in the relationship between biobanks and research units By Carole HARITCHABALET; Catherine BOBTCHEFF
  6. Economic challenge and new maritime risks management: What blue growth? By Patrick Chaumette
  7. What kinds of regional innovation systems occur around federal agencies? By Martin Warland

  1. By: Marx, Susanne
    Abstract: The management of knowledge in projects delivers benefits, while the im-plementation of knowledge management is challenged by (project-specific) issues. Based on practice in interorganizational, cross-border projects funded by the Interreg South Baltic Programme (SBP), this paper analyses the potential value and hindrances of knowledge management in projects funded within Interreg programs. The SBP mentions repeatedly "Transfer of knowledge and exchange of good practices" as an example activity in the program manual (Interreg South Baltic Programme 2016b, pp. 13, 25, 34, 38), however, dedicated knowledge management processes, tools or plans are not part of the com-pulsory application for funding nor its assessment. Knowledge management (KM) can provide value at different levels: to individuals, project partner organisations, the entire programme and even cross-programme as well as other project stakeholders. While KM can support strategy towards building competitive advantage in the programme region, KM processes can enhance the efficiency of project implementation. Worth noting is the impact of KM on individual motivation both for joining a project and for contributing to knowledge exchange. [...]
    Keywords: Project Knowledge Management,Interreg,EU project,Inter-organizational Cooperation,Cross-border Cooperation,Knowledge Management Framework,Knowledge Management Processes,Project Knowledge Facilitator
    JEL: M16 O13 O22
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May, G.; Navarro, Adoracion, M.; Detros, Keith, C.
    Abstract: Road funds like the Motor Vehicle User's Charge (MVUC) fund in the Philippines are earmarked funds that ensure a stable flow of resources, particularly for public road development projects. However, shortcomings from project identification to fund disbursement hamper effective implementation of the MVUC funding scheme. In assessing the different MVUC processes, this paper finds that transparency and efficiency in collection should be improved through automation and accurate recording. Project identification and investment programming must also adhere to the recommended procedures in the operating manual. As the study finds indications of fund underutilization, it suggests accelerating fund utilization through advance project development and investment programming. Looking at five MVUC-funded projects, it observes that only one of the five projects had an impact monitoring system. Nevertheless, findings from field visits and interviews with beneficiaries reveal that there are positive benefits from the MVUC mechanism. A closer look at successful cases in other countries also reveals good practices that are worth noting.
    Keywords: public finance, Philippines, road fund, earmarking, MVUC, transportation, motor vehicle inspection system, program assessment
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Philippe Henry (Scènes et savoirs - UP8 - Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis)
    Abstract: This report deals with an exploratory research carried out between October 2016 and June 2017 on three cases of cooperative arrangement, mainly involving cultural micro-enterprises with other than profit-making goals, that’s to say : Artenréel, a “Coopérative d’activités et d’emploi” in Strasbourg ; AGEC, a “Groupe d’employeurs” in Bordeaux ; La Coursive Boutaric, a “Pôle territorial de coopération économique” in Dijon. The analysis stresses the central importance that is to be given to the socioeconomic specificities of the cultural field if we want to better understand what is at stake in the cooperative arrangements which are nowadays currently developing between micro-enterprises. The project logic specific to the micro-enterprises in the cultural field thus strongly determines the nature and the area of relevance of these groupings which are largely based on their ability to set up and develop concrete and efficient forms of mutualisation. The very interest and difficulty of these innovative organisations lie in the process of constructing and perpetuating a common pool, the object of which nevertheless also remains to accompany the development of singular projects, thus inducing a structural economic fragility, especially since the involvement of the various cooperators, most of the time, cannot be constant and equally intense in the long term. The permanent animation and coordination team of the groupings has a role that is always major and structuring as far as the communication dynamics are concerned and are themselves an essential support for the cooperative process as a whole. The diversity of their members also implies a plurality of information and communication modalities and devices. Those are not so easy to coordinate, including when they use the new digital tools that are today available. Numerous balances are thus to be found between different levels of reality and imply constant adaptations, because of the very nature of the activity of the cooperating members and of the functions that are pooled. Transmitting the grouping history and the accumulated know-how to new members is not the least of the questions that arise. The very nature of cooperative arrangements implies taking into account a diversity of actors, each one of whom has their own stakes of existence and development. It is not therefore surprising that their governance is developing according to a dynamic at several levels and modalities. While presenting itself as relatively distributed, this dynamic is in no way homogeneous. Everyone – including newcomers – will have to find their own place. Among other things, particular attention should be paid to maintaining a discussion on the substance of the cooperative project, to questioning the renewal of the formal management bodies or also to the critical size around which the project reaches its maximum relevance. In the end, only a systemic assessment of these groupings will make it possible to better understand the peculiarity of their innovative running. The analysis thus shows the full interest, but also the structural difficulties, of such approaches, if only to consolidate the economic viability of these projects whose stakes are not first and foremore economic.
    Abstract: Ce rapport porte sur une recherche exploratoire menée entre octobre 2016 et juin 2017 sur trois cas d’agencement coopératif, impliquant majoritairement des micro-entreprises culturelles poursuivant des buts d’abord autres que lucratifs : Artenréel, Coopérative d’activités et d’emploi à Strasbourg ; l’AGEC, Groupement d’employeurs à Bordeaux ; La Coursive Boutaric, Pôle territorial de coopération économique à Dijon. L’analyse souligne la centralité à accorder aux spécificités socioéconomiques du domaine culturel si l’on veut mieux comprendre ce qui se joue dans les agencements coopératifs entre micro-entreprises qui s’y développent de nos jours. Les logiques de projet propres aux micro-entreprises du domaine culturel déterminent ainsi fortement la nature et la zone de pertinence de ces groupements. Ceux-ci reposent très largement sur leur capacité à mettre en place et à développer des formes concrètes et efficientes de mutualisation. Tout l’intérêt et toute la difficulté de ces organisations innovantes résident alors dans la construction et la pérennisation d’un commun, dont l’objet reste pourtant aussi d’accompagner le développement de projets singuliers. Une fragilité économique structurelle s’en trouve induite, d’autant que l’implication des différents coopérants ne saurait, la plupart du temps, être constante et à même intensité dans la durée. Le rôle de l’équipe permanente d’animation et de coordination des groupements est toujours majeur et structurant pour la dynamique communicationnelle, qui est elle-même un support essentiel du processus coopératif dans son ensemble. La diversité de leurs adhérents implique également une pluralité de modalités et de dispositifs d’information et de communication. Ceux-ci ne se révèlent pas si simples à coordonner, y compris quand ils utilisent les nouveaux outils numériques aujourd’hui disponibles. De nombreux équilibres sont ainsi à trouver entre différents niveaux de réalité et impliquent des adaptations incessantes, de par la nature même de l’activité des membres coopérants et des fonctions qui sont mises en commun. La transmission à de nouveaux membres de l’histoire du groupement et des savoir-faire accumulés n’est pas la moindre des questions qui se posent. La nature même des agencements coopératifs induit une prise en compte d’une diversité d’acteurs ayant chacun leurs propres enjeux d’existence et de développement. Il n’est donc pas surprenant que leur gouvernance se développe selon une dynamique à plusieurs niveaux et modalités. Tout en se présentant comme relativement distribuée, cette dynamique n’est en rien homogène. Chacun – dont les nouveaux entrants – aura à y trouver sa propre place. Une attention particulière est à porter, entre autres, au maintien d’une discussion sur le fond du projet coopératif, à la question du renouvellement des instances formelles de direction ou à celle de la taille critique autour de laquelle le projet atteint sa pertinence maximale. Au final, seule une évaluation systémique de ces groupements est en mesure de mieux appréhender la particularité de leur fonctionnement innovant. L'analyse montre ainsi tout l'intérêt, mais aussi les difficultés en partie structurelles, de telles démarches, ne serait-ce que pour consolider la viabilité économique de projets porteurs d’enjeux non principalement économiques.
    Keywords: Cultural entrepreneurship , Micro-enterprise , Socioeconomics,Entrepreneuriat culturel , Coopération , Micro-entreprise , Socioéconomie
    Date: 2018–02
  4. By: Köhler, Jonathan Hugh; Hohmann, Claudia; Dütschke, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Sustainability transitions take place across geographical and political levels. Services such as energy supply, water supply and wastewater management or housing are part of daily life have to be provided at the district level within larger urban governance structures or by smaller rural administrations. However, relatively little attention has been given to the analysis of these local structures. This paper reviews case studies of niches in the areas of district heat networks, communal housing projects for the elderly and sustainable water/wastewater management. The paper addresses the following research questions: 1. What are the similarities and differences in the case study's drivers and barriers that have arisen between the fields of action and what conclusions can be drawn from these insights in order to maximize success factors or to minimize obstacles in advance? 2. What are the key factors for transition, also with regard to the synergies of the three fields of action? 3. What is the stage of development of the niches? Are they in a transition process or not? District heat networks are established as a niche, but given the current policy and financial environment are developing very slowly. Communal housing projects are a small part of the overall housing market, but the niche is stable and growing. Waste water separation and new rain water management systems are developing as niches, but the centralised management of decentralised waste water treatment has so far only been adopted in a few cases. These niches are all critically dependent on support from the district authorities. High complexity and inconsistency in legal frameworks, and missing financial re-sources present significant barriers for innovative niche projects. They usually require new, specific financial support to enable the change from conventional systems. These groups face a difficult period of developing their expertise in planning and management and often require financial support and advice. Consultancy networks - if available - have been shown to be important in enabling such pro-jects to establish themselves. As all three case studies rely on infrastructure components, stakeholders need to consider windows of opportunities for innovation. Acceptance and trust are additional factors influencing the projects. Therefore, constructive and goal-oriented "interaction" and communication between the stakeholders on district and project level are key factors for success. It is important to share data and information to guarantee an early integration of important stakeholders, including the public. Projects in all three areas have the ambition of improved sustainability, although data on the actual impact is limited. The housing projects can be argued to contribute to sustainability in all three areas: environmental, social and economic. The district heat networks are supposed to reduce environmental impacts compared to current systems, but there was insufficient monitoring information to be certain that this is the case. The alternative water management systems all make a contribution to environmental sustainability and can be shown to be economically viable. If successful, projects in all three sectors can strengthen local social structures. Economic sustainability is a necessary condition for the success of projects in all three areas and this requires financial support and resources that are not available through the conventional housing, energy or water services market institutions. While projects on district and household level are fundamental to a sustainability transition, efforts for upscaling their impacts (Luederitz et al. 2017) are just as important. The challenges for actors on local to global scale are to learn from different narratives and adapt different perspectives, build unconventional alliances and collaborations to implement innovative, creative and intelligent solutions for a sustainability transition on a larger scale (Luederitz et al. 2017; Wittmayer et al. 2016; Brown et al. 2013).
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Carole HARITCHABALET; Catherine BOBTCHEFF
    Abstract: We propose to model the relationship between a biobank and a research unit. We are interested in the problem of a research unit that wishes to invest in a new project. This project can potentially lead to a new drug or process whose profitability is uncertain. This project requires access to a collection of biological resources (biological samples and associated data) stored in a biobank. The commercial value of this innovation is unknown by the biobank and the research unit, but it is endogenous, i.e. it depends on the actions and decisions of the different actors. Our objective is to identify how these actions and decisions modify the value of the innovation.
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Patrick Chaumette (CDMO - Centre de droit maritime et océanique - UN - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: The “blue growth” has many technological challenges as, for example, the exploitation of new energies at sea, deeper drilling and farther from the coast, ships increasingly impressive, computerized and automated. If there are opportunities, there are also new risks concerning safety and security and the protection of the marine environment. The maritime industry, ships, ports, platforms, is supposed to bring the minimum impact to the environment and also must be protected from malicious acts and violent attacks. The interventions of public and private actors are quite complementary. Can the High Reliability Organisations (HRO) concept be deployed in order to better understand the safety and security of ships, platforms and port facilities?
    Abstract: Des nouvelles énergies à exploiter en mer, des forages toujours plus loin des côtes et plus profonds, des navires de plus en plus imposants, informatisés et automatisés, sont autant de défis technologiques de la « croissance bleue ». S’il y a là des opportunités, ce sont aussi de nouveaux risques, concernant la sûreté et la sécurité, la protection de l’environnement marin. La filière maritime, navires, ports, plates-formes, doit avoir le minimum d’impact sur l’environnement, doit être protégée des actes malveillants et attaques violentes. Les interventions des acteurs publics et privés sont tout à fait complémentaires. Le concept d’Organisation à Haute Fiabilité (High Reliability Organisations - HRO) peut-il être déployé afi n de mieux appréhender la sécurité et la sûreté des navires, plates-formes et installations portuaires ?
    Keywords: blue growth,management,Economic challenge,new maritime risks,croissance bleue,nouveaux risques maritimes,Challenge économique
    Date: 2017–10–27
  7. By: Martin Warland
    Abstract: Scholars in innovation studies increasingly highlight that federal governments on the demand side spur innovation activities of government contractors. While government contractors tend to concentrate in capital cities, the kinds of regional innovation system (RIS) that occur around federal agencies remain poorly understood. Drawing on the RIS approach, this paper examines the actors and activities that are placed at the interface between public demand and private supply. The analysis draws on 122 interviews with RIS actors in Bern, The Hague, Ottawa and Washington, D.C. The results indicate that intermediaries play crucial roles in stimulating knowledge exchange between public demand and private supply. One important role relates to getting involved in policy formulation in order to enhance interactive learning in federal procurement practices. In interaction inspiring federal procurement policies, government contractors generate technical knowledge that they also can exploit through private sector clients.
    Date: 2016–07

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