nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2018‒01‒22
six papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Economic impact and project financing equilibrium to assess large transport infrastructure projects By Dimitriou , Dimitrios J.
  2. Creative disruption: the everyday innovation practices of intrapreneurs at a technology company By Whitelaw, Lisa Anne; Garcia-Lorenzo, Lucia
  3. Cluster dynamics: learning from Competitiveness Cluster policy. The case of ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region By Christian Longhi
  4. Higher Education for Smart Specialisation: The case of Navarre, Spain By Igor Campillo; Eskarne Arregui-Pabollet; Javier Gomez Prieto
  5. Impacts of nationally determined contributions on 2030 global greenhouse gas emissions: uncertainty analysis and distribution of emissions By Hélène Benveniste; Olivier Boucher; Céline Guivarch; Hervé Le Treut; Patrick Criqui
  6. Management of systems engineering and technical assistance of DARPA research programs By Ilya Klabukov; Andrey Yakovets; Maksim Alekhin

  1. By: Dimitriou , Dimitrios J.
    Abstract: Supply chain and logistics transport infrastructures are key components of the national asset portfolio. In most of the cases the decision to invest in a transport infrastructure is not simple, mainly, because the complications in planning process, the amount of capital need to invest before the business establishment and the high number of stakeholders involved in decision process. The decision process is more complicate in large transport infrastructure projects, where the project survivability is strongly related to financial viability as well as economic development prospects and in medium-long time horizon. This paper deals with the methodology approach to support strategic decisions about develop a new large transport infrastructure project. According a systematic approach, the analysis framework where the decision key issues are evaluated and the key messages to decision makers are presented. Conventional wisdom is to present a systematic approach appropriate to apply is relevant projects, providing the essential tool to support decisions at level of strategic planning. This paper attempts to fill gaps faced by stakeholders and decisions makers in the evaluation and decision making process of developing large transport infrastructure projects. According to a consequences analysis and systemic approach the relationship of supply chain and logistic center infrastructure development, financial viability and economic system development and stakeholder’s expectation is analyzed. The application provides the methodology outputs presenting the proposed framework for a strategic new freight infrastructure including new rail line and freight center in sea port in North Greece.
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Whitelaw, Lisa Anne; Garcia-Lorenzo, Lucia
    Abstract: This article makes a contribution to disruptive innovation studies by exploring the micro-dynamics of everyday 'creative disruption' – the creative practices intrapreneurs engage in during their daily work to advance innovation projects inside organizations. Drawing on a practice-based approach and a qualitative action research case study at Thales UK, a multinational technology organization, this article asks how intrapreneurs as key innovative agents foster disruptive innovation practices in their day-to-day work. The analysis of 55 interviews, 25 diary accounts, 29 observations of innovation related events plus a number of documents and reflexive notes following the development of 6 innovation projects as they happen, shows intrapreneurs navigating organizational tensions resulting from disruptive innovation efforts by constantly developing creative disruption practices in response to contextual demands to progress their innovation projects. The results help to expand our understanding of the notion of disruptive innovation in organizations, re-framing it as a micro-level generative process. NOTE: We have the explicit permission and consent from the UK division of Thales to use its real name in disseminating our research.
    Keywords: disruptive innovation; intrapreneurship; micro-practices
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2017–01–01
  3. By: Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur)
    Abstract: The paper aims to identify the forms and dynamics of the organizational structures of high-tech clusters overtime. Since Markusen (1996), it is well acknowledged that diversity is an emergent property of clusters, but the interactions between local and non-local actors of the clusters are difficult to trace because of lack of relevant data. The cluster policies developed to fix the network failures between the heterogeneous actors – large and small firms, universities, research institutes – of the current processes of innovation provide new information opportunities. In France, Competitiveness Clusters work as a “factories of project”; the information they produce on collective R&D projects applying for subsidies provides a proxy of local and non-local relations of the clusters. Social network analysis is used to infer the organizational structure of the collective learning networks and trace their dynamics. The case studies considered are Sophia-Antipolis and Rousset, two high tech clusters which belong to the same Competitiveness Cluster, ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region. The paper highlights the decoupling of the two clusters overtime as a consequence of distinctive organizational structures. The diversity of the dynamics of the collective learning networks which emerges through the analysis of the collective R&D projects in the two high tech clusters shows that knowledge creation and innovation can follow different paths and questions the public policies implemented.
    Keywords: Innovation, Collective Learning Networks, Competitiveness Cluster, Social Network Analysis, Rousset,Cluster Policy, Sophia Antipolis
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Igor Campillo (University of the Basque Country); Eskarne Arregui-Pabollet (European Commission - JRC); Javier Gomez Prieto (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report gathers the main findings extracted from the Navarre case study carried out in the framework of the Higher Education and Smart Specialisation (HESS) project managed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Navarre has been one of the two regions covered as case studies during the first phase of the project. The overall aim of HESS is to understand and provide support to national and regional authorities on how to integrate higher education into the policy mixes of their Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3). This technical report provides some interesting insights into how an advanced region with high involvement of universities in the early phase of S3 definition is facing the challenges of their role in the implementation phase. On the one hand, it shows that different universities in the same region are likely to vary in nature and function and as such may contribute differently to the S3. In Navarre, one of the two universities is more research oriented with a strong focus on the attraction of international talent, while the other is more regionally rooted with close ties to local companies and stakeholders. On the other hand, the report identifies tensions in engaging individual researchers in regional development activities, as well as potential mechanisms and tools to overcome them. The methodology used during the project has included qualitative research methods, participatory workshops and desk-research activities.
    Keywords: Smart specialisation, higher education
    Date: 2017–12
  5. By: Hélène Benveniste (IPSL - Institut Pierre-Simon-Laplace - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNES - Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris); Olivier Boucher (LMD - Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - Polytechnique - X - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Hervé Le Treut (UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6); Patrick Criqui (GAEL - Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquée de Grenoble - Grenoble INP - Institut polytechnique de Grenoble - Grenoble Institute of Technology - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UGA - Université Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), submitted by Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) before and after the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21), summarize domestic objectives for greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reductions for the 2025-2030 time horizon. In the absence, for now, of detailed guidelines for NDCs format, ancillary data are needed to interpret some NDCs and project GHG emissions in 2030. Here, we provide an analysis of uncertainty sources and their impacts on 2030 global GHG emissions based on the sole and full achievement of the NDCs. We estimate that NDCs project into 56.8 to 66.5 Gt CO2eq yr-1 emissions in 2030 (90% confidence interval), which is higher than previous estimates, and with a larger uncertainty range. Despite these uncertainties, NDCs robustly shift GHG emissions towards emerging and developing countries and reduce international inequalities in per capita GHG emissions. Finally, we stress that current NDCs imply larger emissions reduction rates after 2030 than during the 2010-2030 period if long-term temperature goals are to be fulfilled. Our results highlight four requirements for the forthcoming "climate regime": a clearer framework regarding future NDCs' design, an increasing participation of emerging and developing countries in the global mitigation effort, an ambitious update mechanism in order to avoid hardly feasible decarbonization rates after 2030 and an anticipation of steep decreases in global emissions after 2030.
    Date: 2017–12–11
  6. By: Ilya Klabukov (Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University); Andrey Yakovets (MIPT - Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology [Moscow]); Maksim Alekhin (Bauman Moscow State Technical University)
    Abstract: Currently a vast number of scientific publications in Russia and abroad are devoted to the phenomenon of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Success factors of the Agency are usually identified as: a recruitment policy of research managers, scientific resources of the Agency’s contractors, unique super-system of the DARPA's external environment and significant costs of R&D initiatives spent by the US Department of Defense. At the same time, systems engineering and technical assistance (SETA) contracting in the implementation of DARPA's high-risk projects have been neglected as a rule by the time. This paper describes the role of SETA-support contractors in ensuring the success of DARPA's ambitious projects and the impact of government contracts technical support on perspective defense R&D programs. The SETA rate in total R&D expenditures of DARPA are evaluated as 7,4-9,9%. Finally, the possibility of implementation of best practices and experiences of SETA system utilization for technological support of perspective high-risk R&D programs for governmental Russian agencies is analyzed.
    Abstract: В настоящее время исследованию феномена Агентства передовых оборонных научно-исследовательских проектов США (DARPA) посвящено обширное количество научных публикаций, как в России, так и за рубежом. Среди факторов успеха агентства выделяют правила найма менеджеров исследовательских программ, научный потенциал подрядчиков, уникальную суперсистему внешнего окружения, а также значительные затраты на НИОКР со стороны Минобороны США. При этом аспекты участия организаций «системного проектирования и технической поддержки» (SETA) в реализации сложных высокорисковых научно-исследовательских и опытно-конструкторских работ (НИОКР), как правило, остаются без внимания. В настоящей работе на основе опыта США рассматриваются вопросы технического сопровождения государственных контрактов на НИОКР в интересах обороны страны, раскрывается роль SETA-подрядчиков в обеспечении успеха научно-технических проектов DARPA. Проведена оценка доли расходов на техническое сопровождение в общих расходах на НИОКР агентства (7,4-9,9%). Дается оценка возможности использования опыта DARPA по системному проектированию и технической поддержке при сопровождении НИОКР в рамках федеральных целевых программ в России.
    Keywords: defense research,DARPA,federal contract system,systems engineering and technical assistance,SETA support,системное проектирование и техническая поддержка,сопровождение государственных контрактов,оборонные исследования,ДАРПА,Федеральная контрактная система
    Date: 2017–06–30

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