nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2017‒01‒15
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Maximizing the Impact of Climate Finance: Funding Projects or Pilot Projects? By Matthew J. Kotchen
  2. Examining Processes in Research and Development at the Department of Science and Technology By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Yasay, Donald B.; Gaspar, Raymond E.
  3. Preliminary Assessment of the Shared Service Facilities By Medalla, Erlinda M.; del Prado, Fatima; Mantaring, Melalyn C.; Maddawin, Angelica B.
  4. Results of the Assessment of the Utilization and Impacts of the Motor Vehicle User's Charge in the Philippines By Detros, Keith C.; Navarro, Adoracion M.; Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May G.
  5. Assessment of the Bottom-Up Budgeting Process for FY 2016 By Manasan, Rosario G.
  6. National Greening Program Assessment Project: Environmental Component - Process Evaluation Phase By Balangue, Tonie O.
  7. Research Funding and Regional Economies By Nathan Goldschlag; Stefano Bianchini; Julia Lane; Joseba Sanmartín Sola; Bruce Weinberg
  8. Environmental disclosure and innovation activity: Evidence from EU corporations By Emiko Inoue

  1. By: Matthew J. Kotchen
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the understanding of how to maximize the impact of publicly provided climate finance to leverage the private sector. Agencies seeking to promote private investment in support of climate change mitigation and adaptation may have a choice between subsidizing projects or pilot projects. Pilots are either scaled down versions of full projects or an experimental phase that generates better information about whether a full project is likely to succeed or fail. Drawing on insights about the value of experimentation for entrepreneurship and raising private capital, the theoretical model developed herein provides guidance about when subsidizing projects or pilots is more efficient.
    JEL: G18 H2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2017–01
  2. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Yasay, Donald B.; Gaspar, Raymond E.
    Abstract: Research and development (R&D) activities have long been recognized as one of the critical components to improve a country's productivity and competitiveness as well as people's well-being. Notable advancements in agriculture (to develop new variety of crops), health (to improve nutrition and combat various diseases), industry (to develop new products and services), as well as in climate change adaptation and mitigation are products of R&D. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), chiefly through sectoral councils and R&D performers, has been successfully undertaking or supporting a considerable share of R&D activities in the country while noting limited resources available. However, there is a need to improve the thrust for R&D, which may require the conduct of an R&D summit to finalize the scope of the government's R&D medium- and long-term agenda. The DOST also needs to reexamine the distribution of grant-in-aid funds to R&D institutes and identify breakdowns of R&D funding for basic research, applied research, and development. The DOST may need to pilot test scientific methods, such as Analytic Hierarchy Processes, for selection of R&D proposals for funding by its sectoral councils.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, research and development (R&D), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), R&D institutes, grant-in-aid (GIA) fund, R&D activities
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Medalla, Erlinda M.; del Prado, Fatima; Mantaring, Melalyn C.; Maddawin, Angelica B.
    Abstract: This paper assesses one of the pillars of the "Big Push" for micro, small, and medium enterprise (MSME) development of the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI): the shared service facility (SSF). Implemented in 2013, SSF seeks to address the gaps and bottlenecks in the value chain of priority industry clusters through the provision of processing and/or manufacturing machinery, equipment, tools, and related accessories for the common use of MSMEs. The assessment used case studies of selected three project sites where focus group discussions (FGDs) were held and preliminary data on output, performance, and costs could be obtained. Overall data from DTI on SSF were also utilized. The results appear promising, although still not robust enough because of insufficient data, and the program being still in early stage (2nd year) of implementation. The project costs very little, but it has had notable and substantial impact on jobs and productivity. This is indicated by the low estimates of the implicit subsidy per worker and generally favorable measure of the benefit-cost ratio of projects undertaken under the program. In addition, the FGDs, on the whole, brought out encouraging feedback from all concerned.
    Keywords: Philippines, micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs), SME development, shared service facility
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Detros, Keith C.; Navarro, Adoracion M.; Napalang, Ma. Sheilah G.; Agatep, Pia May G.
    Abstract: Road funds like the Motor Vehicle User's Charge (MVUC) Fund in the Philippines are a kind of earmarked funds. Though without shortcomings, earmarking funds through the MVUC continues to be relevant as it is able to ensure a stable flow of resources for public road expenditures. The study identifies the shortcomings and areas for improvement. In assessing the different stages of the MVUC process, the study finds that transparency and efficiency in collection have to be improved through automation and accurate recording. It also finds that project identification and investment programming need to adhere to the recommended procedures in the operating manual. As there are indications of fund underutilization, the study recommends accelerating the utilization of funds through advanced project development and investment programming. After examining five MVUC-funded projects, the authors find that an impact monitoring system is present in only one case that is recently finished, and the sparse data available are not enough to quantitatively establish impacts. Nevertheless, findings from field visits and interviews with beneficiaries reveal that there are positive benefits from the MVUC mechanism. An examination of successful cases in other countries also reveals good practices that are worth looking into, such as ensuring that the road fund administrator is strictly an administrator rather than project implementer, advanced preparation of long-term vision and medium- to short-term road investment programs, and variations of the reimbursement-basis payment system that is supported by strong audit systems.
    Keywords: Philippines, public finance, road fund, earmarking
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Manasan, Rosario G.
    Abstract: Bottom-up budgeting (BUB) is a government program that is envisioned to institutionalize and incentivize grassroots participation in local planning and budgeting in all cities and municipalities. This study aims (i) to examine how the key steps in the planning and prioritization of projects that will be funded under the BUB for the fiscal year (FY) 2016 planning cycle are implemented in terms of extent of participation of civil society organizations (CSO), local government unit (LGU)-CSO engagement, and the integration of BUB processes in the mainstream local planning processes; and (ii) to report on the pace of implementation of FY 2013 and FY 2014 BUB subprojects and to identify the bottlenecks affecting the same. Based on the BUB experience in the 12 case study sites, this study argues that CSO participation in the BUB may be characterized on the basis of how the LGUs actually operationalized the key features of the BUB. The study then juxtaposed the extent of CSO participation in the BUB in the 12 study sites. It measured the share of CSO-identified or proposed projects in the total project cost of all BUB subprojects against the actual conduct of the CSO assembly and Local Poverty Reduction Action Plan (LPRAP) workshop in these LGUs to gain a better understanding of the relative importance of the various aspects that comprise CSO participation in the BUB. On the other hand, the evaluation of the pace of implementation of the subprojects prioritized and included in the LPRAPs of the 12 study sites for FY 2013 and FY 2014 shows mixed results. While the implementation of FY 2014 BUB subprojects is faster than the implementation of FY 2013 BUB subprojects in terms of project completion, procurement, and provision of national government agency feedback to LGUs, some deterioration in the downloading of project funds is evident between these two years.
    Keywords: Philippines, bottom-up budgeting (BUB), participatory budgeting, civil society organizations (CSOs), accountability, LGU-CSO engagement, local governance, basic sector organizations
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Balangue, Tonie O.
    Abstract: This paper assesses the National Greening Program (NGP) process as implemented in the field and the environmental impacts. The municipalities of Sta. Cruz in Zambales, Basilisa in Dinagat Island, and Hinobaan in Negros Occidental were randomly selected from all the NGP sites. The methodology employed consisted of key informant interviews and focus group discussions for the survey, mapping, and planning (SMP); assessment of capability building, plantation quality assurance, seedling production, planting, and protection and maintenance; and actual impact measurements on the ground through sampling. Results showed that the required NGP processes were not fully complied with. However, the required survival rates of 85 percent were satisfied through replanting. The environmental impacts were gaining positive momentum through reduced temperature, soil build-up, soil fertility, soil moisture, wildlife, stumpage build-up, and carbon sequestration. Impacts on disaster risk reduction and climate change fell short due to lack of a suitable design. Recommendations to further improve NGP implementation include, among others, conduct of a full-blown SMP and feasibility study, compliance to required processes and standards, inclusion of a reforestation access road, linking reforestation to a business plan, and capability building of reforestation partners.
    Keywords: Philippines, National Greening Program (NGP), reforestation, survival rates, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation/mitigation
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Nathan Goldschlag; Stefano Bianchini; Julia Lane; Joseba Sanmartín Sola; Bruce Weinberg
    Abstract: Public support of research typically relies on the notion that universities are engines of economic development and that university research is a primary driver of high wage localized economic activity. However, the evidence supporting that notion is based on aggregate descriptive data, rather than detailed links at the level of individual transactions. Here we use new micro-data from three countries—France, Spain and the United States—to examine one mechanism whereby such economic activity is generated, namely purchases from regional businesses. We show that grant funds are more likely to be expended at businesses physically closer to universities than at those farther away. In addition, if a vendor has been a supplier to a grant once, that vendor is subsequently more likely to be a vendor on the same or related grants. Firms behave in a way that is consistent with the notion that propinquity is good for business; if a firm supplies a research grant at a university in a given year, it is more likely to open an establishment near that university in subsequent years than other firms.
    JEL: O31 R1
    Date: 2017–01
  8. By: Emiko Inoue
    Abstract: Innovation is expected to become an essential element in overcoming climate change issue. To examine the factors that might induce such innovation, this study focuses on environmental disclosure and scrutinises how it influences innovation activity. Utilising firm-level panel datasets from EU corporations (fiscal years 2000-08) that were constructed based on the Carbon Disclosure Project data and the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard, I estimate dynamic panel models using the system GMM estimator. The potential endogeneity issue is addressed in the models. Innovation activity is measured by R&D investment. The results show that corporations that implement a specific environmental disclosure action, namely, disclosing Scope 3 GHGemissions, are more likely to invest in R&D. This study sugg ests that supply chain management is crucial for corporations to enhance their innovation activity. In addition,this study reveals that a policy that stimulates corporate incentives to disclose Scope 3 GHG emissions may be a key to enhancing innovation activity. Since communication between corporations and other stakeholders, which may be enhanced by environmental disclosure , is a significant factor in encouraging corporate innovation activity, it is important to construct a system wherein environmental disclosure is evaluated objectively and corporations with strong environmental performance are adequately rewarded.
    Keywords: innovation;Environmental disc losure;Voluntary action;Endog eneity;Climate change
    Date: 2016–12

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