nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2016‒08‒07
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  2. Benefit Sharing Exploring Water Resources in Brazil By Tiago P. Ferraz
  3. Betting on Exports: Trade and Endogenous Heterogeneity By Rosario Crino; Gino Gancia; Alessandra Bonfiglioli
  4. Trade, Finance and Endogenous Firm Heterogeneity By Rosario Crino; Gino Gancia; Alessandra Bonfiglioli
  5. 2015 Clean Energy Investments: Project Summaries By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. Building Skills and Capacity: Accountability Mechanism Annual Report 2015 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  7. The land use change time-accounting failure By Marion Dupoux
  8. Research Funding and Regional Economies By Goldschlag, Nathan; Bianchini, Stefano; Lane, Julia; SanMartin Sola, Joseba; Weinberg, Bruce A.

  1. By: Bharti Venkatesh; Lalit Balani
    Abstract: Requirements are basic building block for any project clear requirements definitions are very important for any project. Without clearly spelt out requirements it is very difficult to develop a stable system. Worldwide percentage of successfully completed projects is very low, and most of the failures are attributed to unclear, ambiguous or undefined requirements. In Case of software projects, management of requirements is very critical for successful Project Management.This paper attempts to highlight what are the common causes for failure of requirement management process in software projects. Thispaper also highlights continuous usage of different metrics so that whenever the requirement management process performance goes off track, corrective action can be takeninstead of acting only after completion of the phase. Key words: Requirement Management, metrics, Stakeholders, Project Management
    Date: 2016–06
  2. By: Tiago P. Ferraz
    Abstract: Large infrastructure projects may cause permanent impacts on their local environment, affecting the living conditions of local people in a negative manner. To mitigate impacts caused by installation of hydroelectric plants, Brazilian law provides that municipalities are compensated by the Compensação Financeira pelo Uso de Recursos Hídricos (CFURH) and the payment of royalties (Itaipu). In this work I test whether such payments have actually worked as a benefit sharing mechanism, examining its effects on some social and economic indicators by way of two steps procedure: first, the propensity score of municipalities benefiting from the compensation is estimated using georeferenced data from WWF’s project HydroSHEDS. Then, I estimate a difference-in-differences model, comparing the dependent variables in the control and treatment groups before and after the compensation. The results show a limited effect of the compensation on living conditions. Human Development Index (HDI) and infant mortality showed a little improvement, but illiteracy rate and income inequality worsened.
    Keywords: benefit-sharing; CFURH; royalties.
    JEL: H75 H76 I38
    Date: 2016–07–28
  3. By: Rosario Crino (Catholic University of Milan); Gino Gancia (CREI); Alessandra Bonfiglioli (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: We study the equilibrium determinants of firm-level heterogeneity in a model in which firms can affect the variance of their productivity draws at the entry stage and explore the implications in closed and open economy. By allowing firms to choose the size of their investment in innovation projects of unknown quality, the model yields a Pareto distribution for productivity with a shape parameter that depends on industry-level characteristics. A novel result is that export opportunities, by increasing the payoffs in the tail, induce firms to invest in bigger projects with more spread-out outcomes. Moreover, when more productive firms also pay higher wages, trade amplifies wage dispersion by making all firms more unequal. These results are consistent with new evidence on how firm-level heterogeneity and wage dispersion vary in a panel of U.S. industries. Finally, we use patent data across U.S. states and over time to provide evidence in support of a specific mechanism of the model, namely, that export opportunities increase firm heterogeneity by fostering innovation.
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Rosario Crino (Catholic University of Milan); Gino Gancia (CREI); Alessandra Bonfiglioli (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)
    Abstract: We study how financial frictions affect firm-level heterogeneity and trade in a model where productivity differences across monopolistically competitive firms are endogenous and depend on investment decisions at the entry stage. By increasing entry costs, financial frictions reduce the exit cutoff thereby lowering the value of investing in bigger projects with more dispersed outcomes. Hence, credit frictions make firms more homogeneous and hinder the volume of exports both along the intensive and the extensive margin. Export opportunities, instead, shift expected profits to the tail and increase the value of technological heterogeneity. We test these predictions using comparable measures of sale dispersion within 365 manufacturing industries in 119 countries, built from highly disaggregated US import data. Consistent with the model, financial development increases sale dispersion, especially in more financially vulnerable industries; sale dispersion is also increasing in measures of comparative advantage. These results are quantitatively important for explaining the effect of financial development and factor endowments on export sales.
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report summarizes the investments in clean energy made by the operations departments of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 2015, condensing information from project databases and formal reports in an easy-to-reference format. This report was prepared by ADB’s Clean Energy Program which provides the cohesive agenda that encompasses and guides ADB’s lending and nonlending assistance, initiatives, and plan of action for sustainable growth in Asia and the Pacific.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, adb energy investments, clean energy, renewable energy, solar energy, wind energy, energy efficiency, climate change financing, green cities, clean energy program, sustainable transport, loans, grants, technical assistance
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the Special Project Facilitator, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of the Special Project Facilitator, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Accountability Mechanism in 2015—the 12th year of its implementation—concentrated on building skills and capacity, both within ADB including resident mission staff and externally among implementing agencies and other stakeholders. Country-specific training programs, outreach, workshops, and consultations were held in and for Cambodia, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Fiji, Kyrgyz Republic, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Samoa, Thailand, and Viet Nam. Coordination was initiated with the two new development banks in the PRC: Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and New Development Bank. Office of the Special Project Facilitator (OSPF) resolved one complaint in Nepal, while Office of the Compliance Review Panel (OCRP) submitted one compliance review report for India, an eligibility report (Cambodia), and annual monitoring reports on several cases (Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Philippines). And a joint learning report was prepared by OSPF, OCRP, Independent Evaluation Department, and Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department.
    Keywords: Accountability Mechanism, Annual Report 2015, 2015 Accountability Mechanism Annual Report, AM Report 2015
    Date: 2016–04
  7. By: Marion Dupoux
    Abstract: Land use change (LUC) is the second human-induced source of greenhouse gases (GHG). This paper warns about the LUC time-accounting failure in internalizing GHG impacts in economic appraisal (within policies). This emerges from (i) relative carbon prices commonly following the Hotelling rule as if climate change were regarded as an exhaustible resource problem and (ii) a uniform annualization (i.e. constant flows over time) of LUC impacts supported by most energy policies. First, carbon prices time evolution should account for the climate change framework specificities (natural carbon absorption, uncertainty), which makes a departure from the Hotelling rule necessary. Second, there is a carbon dynamic after land conversion: GHG impact flows are strictly decreasing over time. With a theoretical framework, I show that the employment of the uniform annualization, within a benefit-cost analysis, enhances both the discounting overwhelming effect and the carbon price increase, whatever the type of impact (emissions or sequestrations). It results in skewed values of LUC-related projects as long as relative carbon prices deviate from the Hotelling rule. I apply this framework to global warming impacts of bioethanol in France and quantify this bias. In particular, carbon profitability payback periods under the uniform approach do not reflect the LUC effective carbon investment. This potentially modifies the conclusions regarding a project’s achievement of imposed environmental criteria.
    Keywords: Benefit-cost analysis, Discounting, Global warming, Land use change, Relative carbon price
    JEL: D61 H43 Q15 Q16 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2016–07–19
  8. By: Goldschlag, Nathan (U.S. Census Bureau); Bianchini, Stefano (Université de Strasbourg); Lane, Julia (New York University); SanMartin Sola, Joseba; Weinberg, Bruce A. (Ohio State University)
    Abstract: Public support of research typically relies on the notion that universities are engines of economic development, and that university research is a primary driver of high wage localized economic activity. Yet the evidence supporting that notion is based on aggregate descriptive data, rather than detailed links at the level of individual transactions. Here we use new micro-data from three countries - France, Spain and the United States - to examine one mechanism whereby such economic activity is generated, namely purchases from regional businesses. We show that grant funds are more likely to be expended at businesses physically closer to universities than at those farther away. In addition, if a vendor has been a supplier to a grant once, that vendor is subsequently more likely to be a vendor on the same or related grants. Firms behave in a way that is consistent with the notion that propinquity is good for business; if a firm supplies a research grant at a university in a given year it is more likely to open an establishment near that university in subsequent years than other firms.
    Keywords: science policy, innovation, regional economic development, UMETRICS
    JEL: O30 R10
    Date: 2016–07

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