nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2016‒01‒18
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. The effects of innovation policies on firm level patenting By Marit E. Klemetsen
  2. Rio de Janeiro Além de 2016: um projeto para a nova geração de infraestrutura em transportes By Rosane S. Lourenço
  3. Trade, Finance and Endogenous Firm Heterogeneity By Alessandra Bonfiglioli; Rosario Crinò; Gino Gancia
  4. Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction Annual Report 2013 By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  5. Trial Balance: Private Sector Financing for Road projects in India By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  6. Gender Equality Results Case Study - India: Urban Water Supply and Environmental Improvement Project By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  7. Contract Farming for Better Farmer-Enterprise Partnerships, ADB's Experience in the People's Republic of China By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  1. By: Marit E. Klemetsen (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of R&D tax credits and direct R&D subsidies on Norwegian firms' patenting, with a particular focus on environmental patenting. Whereas direct subsidies are aimed at projects with low private and high social return, tax credits do not discriminate between projects or technologies. We find that both direct subsidies and tax credits have significant positive effects on patenting in general. Although direct subsidies have triggered more patents, tax credits are more efficient in the sense that they have triggered more patents relative to the typical subsidy amount received. With regard to environmental patenting, we find no significant effects of tax credits, whereas the effects of direct subsidies are large and significant. A possible explanation is that environmental innovations face the environmental externality, greater knowledge externalities and require funding that is willing to take more risks and allow more patience. Tax credits currently favor small and medium sized firms and firms with relatively low R&D investments. For large firms, we find large and significant effects of direct subsidies, but no significant effects of tax credits.
    Keywords: R&D tax credits; SkatteFUNN; direct R&D subsidies; environmental innovation; SMEs; Poission count model; fixed effects
    JEL: C54 D22 O31 O38 Q55
    Date: 2015–12
  2. By: Rosane S. Lourenço
    Abstract: A progressiva visibilidade internacional proporcionada pelos megaeventos esportivos sediados pelo Rio de Janeiro tem exposto os gestores públicos aos extremos da arte de administrar. Se, por um lado, o fato oferece os meios determinantes para o crescimento econômico e o alcance da desejada produtividade, por outro, representa um desafio na superação de antigas disfunções, como a vagarosa mobilidade e a desagradável poluição. A forma pela qual os gestores escolheram responder à questão tem sido decisiva e merece ser estudada nas nuances que modelam o desenvolvimento futuro. As inovações proporcionadas pela infraestrutura de transporte e pelo arranjo institucional correspondente prenunciam transformar o perfil da região e favorecer o ritmo saudável de vida da população. A conjugação de crescente urbanização com desenvolvimento sustentável é crível, desde que a atenção seja focada nas interdependências, com a ocupação do solo, a geração de energia limpa e o uso de tecnologia da informação e comunicação. The progressive international visibility provided by mega sports events hosted by Rio de Janeiro has exposed public managers to extremes of the art of managing. If on the one hand, the fact provides the means for determining the economic growth and the achievement of the desired productivity, on the other, represents a challenge in overcoming old dysfunctions as the slow mobility and unpleasant pollution. The way in which the managers chose to answer the question has been decisive and deserves to be studied in nuances that shape the future development. The innovations offered by the transportation infrastructure and the corresponding institutional arrangement foreshadow transform the profile of the region and encourage the healthy pace of life of the population. The combination of increasing urbanization with sustainable development is credible, since attention is focused on the interdependencies with the occupation of the soil, the generation of clean energy and the use of information and communication technology.
    Date: 2015–12
  3. By: Alessandra Bonfiglioli; Rosario Crinò; Gino Gancia
    Abstract: We study how financial frictions affect firm-level heterogeneity and trade in a model where productivity differences across monopolistically competitive firms are endogenous and depend on investment decisions at the entry stage. By increasing entry costs, financial frictions soften competition and lower the value of investing in bigger projects with more dispersed outcomes. Hence, credit frictions make firms more homogeneous and hinder the volume of exports both along the intensive and the extensive margin. Export opportunities, instead, shift expected profits to the tail and increase the value of technological heterogeneity. We test these predictions using comparable measures of sale dispersion within 365 manufacturing industries in 119 countries, built from highly disaggregated US import data. Consistent with the model, financial development increases sale dispersion, especially in more financially vulnerable industries; sale dispersion is also increasing in measures of comparative advantage. These results are quantitatively important for explaining the effect of financial development and factor endowments on export sales.
    Keywords: financial development, firm heterogeneity, international trade
    JEL: F12 F16 E24
    Date: 2015–12
  4. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of Cofinancing Operations, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Office of Cofinancing Operations, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: The Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction’s (JFPR) Annual Report 2013 is the 13th such report and covers the period 1 January–31 December 2013. It presents the JFPR’s background and rationale, implementation progress, and achievements. The JFPR was established in May 2000 and provides direct grant assistance to the poorest and most vulnerable groups in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) while fostering long-term social and economic development. The grants target poverty reduction initiatives with the direct participation of nongovernment organizations, community groups, and civil society. In 2009, the Government of Japan and ADB expanded the scope of JFPR to include provision of support to DMCs through capacity development, policy and advisory, research and development, and project preparatory technical assistance.
    Keywords: poverty, assistance, development, Japan, jfpr, grants, project financing, grant assistance, project grants, dmc, vulnerable groups, jfpr projects, technical assistance, disbursements, adb poverty funds, adb assistance, project support, jfpr operations, 2013 operations
    Date: 2015–05
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: India has developed and tested various mechanisms and processes for more effective public–private partnerships in the roads sector, with the goal of achieving an optimal balance of value-for-money and business interests. This report examines various public–private partnership models that India has tested and modified along the way toward its attempts to find the most appropriate model. It also examines the previous and ongoing experiences of the Government of India to create the necessary mechanisms and systemization, policies and legislation, and flexibility for contract negotiation, to allow public and private stakeholders to work cohesively in their effort to improve India’s road infrastructure.
    Keywords: India, Road Sector, Public- Private- Partnerships, PPP, Infrastructure Investment, PPP Models, Infrastructure Financing Modality, Infrastructure, Toll Roads, Concession Agreement, Viability Gap Fund, Private Sector Financing, Annuity
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (South Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Keywords: india, madhya pradesh, gender, gender equality, case study, urban water supply, environment improvement, water management, sanitation, sanitation infrastructure, wastewater management
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (East Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (East Asia Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: This report looks into the many challenges that agriculture in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) faces and how stakeholders are meeting the challenges head-on with the establishment of farmer–enterprise partnerships. It offers case studies and an in-depth look into several enterprises in the PRC and highlights the experiences of these companies which can be used as guidelines for farmer–enterprise partnerships. This report represents the Asian Development Bank’s efforts in pursuing its Finance++ strategy to promoting development. While the study was conducted in the context of the PRC, other developing economies could also benefit through proper generalization and customization of experience and cases learned.
    Keywords: farmer enterprise partnerships, prc, china, contract farming, sustainable agriculture, farming, dryland agriculture, agricultural modernization, agricultural management, agricultural production, agricultural development
    Date: 2015–05

This nep-ppm issue is ©2016 by Arvi Kuura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.