nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2015‒12‒08
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Research and Technology Organisations and Smart Specialisation By David CHARLES; Katerina CIAMPI STANCOVA
  2. Abschlussbericht Modellprojekt Early Intervention - Frühzeitige Arbeitsmarktintegration von Asylbewerbern und Asylbewerberinnen : Ergebnisse der qualitativen Begleitforschung durch das IAB By Büschel, Ulrike; Daumann, Volker; Dietz, Martin; Dony, Elke; Knapp, Barbara; Strien, Karsten
  3. Equilibrium Default By Manuel Amador; Ivan Werning; Hugo A. Hopenhayn; Mark Aguiar
  4. Chinese Overseas Hydropower Dams and Social Sustainability: The Bui Dam in Ghana and the Kamchay Dam in Cambodia By Frauke Urban; Johan Nordensvard; Giuseppina Siciliano; Bingqin Li
  5. South Korea's Global Health Outreach through Official Development Assistance: Analysis of Aid Activities of South Korea's Leading Aid Agencies, 2008–2012 By Eun-mee Kim; Eun-hee Ha; Mi-jin Kwon
  6. Evaluation Design for the Transition to High-Value Agriculture Project in Moldova By Evan Borkum; Jane Fortson; Candace Miller
  7. Adaptation to climate change: when is the public-private governance a good solution? By Anne Stenger; Marco Buso
  8. Developing an Inventory and Typology of Land-Use Planning Systems and Policy Instruments in OECD Countries By Elisabete A. Silva; Ransford A. Acheampong

  1. By: David CHARLES (University of Lincoln); Katerina CIAMPI STANCOVA (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: Research and Technology Organisations (RTOs) have developed in many European countries at both national and regional levels to assist in the support of local industry, often around specific industrial technologies or sectors. With a core responsibility for technological upgrading they play a key role in regional and national innovation systems. Yet there is great variety in the form and mission of such RTOs, especially in terms of the degree of regional alignment, and whilst some regions are relatively well endowed with multiple RTOs, others are reliant on national RTOs in other regions or even other countries. These geographical challenges are also compounded by changes in the funding of RTOs with a shift to greater reliance on non-government funding and the search for funds from international sources such as global firms or Horizon 2020 projects. So whilst regions may see RTOs as critical regional assets, the RTOs may have a more nuanced attitude as their client base extends beyond national boundaries and they search for new sources of revenue. RTOs have an important role to play in smart specialisation (S3) though and three specific roles have been identified here. First, many RTOs have a policy role and have capabilities to identify industry needs and technological opportunities as a key input into the entrepreneurial discovery process. Second, RTOs, as increasingly international organisations, can facilitate the access to global knowledge for regional firms through their networks and research collaborations. Third RTOs often have a central role in the development of particular cluster groupings through their specialisation around core technologies, and as such can be a central player in the development of such clusters. But all three of these roles involve potential challenges and difficulties as the interests of the RTOs do not necessarily align with the needs of the region. The case studies in this report on RTOs in Spain, Finland, Italy, and the UK illustrate the variety of RTOs and the complexities of their relationships with regional hosts, but also some of the initiatives that are developing to support smart specialisation.
    Keywords: smart specialisation, research and technology organisations, regional innovation, research and innovation
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Büschel, Ulrike (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Daumann, Volker (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Dietz, Martin (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Dony, Elke (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Knapp, Barbara (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Strien, Karsten (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Germany is facing an increasing number of persons applying for asylum. The Federal Employment Agency, the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees and XENOS - a program sponsored by the European Social Fund providing labour market related support to refugees - launched a pilot project. This project aims at a quick support with respect to a successful labour market integration that also considers the formal qualification of the asylum seekers in an adequate way. The project was implemented in six German regions and is evaluated by the Institute for Employment Research. The Research Report analyses starting points as well as barriers to labour market integration. It discusses the structure of supporting the refugees within the project and points at problems stemming from the fact that the responsibility for counselling activities shifts from case workers in employment agencies to job centers when the application for asylum is approved. These entities are acting under different legal, financial and organizational frameworks. This structure is a severe handicap for implementing a consistent strategy for the labour market integration of asylum seekers." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Asylbewerber, berufliche Integration, Flüchtlinge, arbeitsmarktpolitische Maßnahme - Modellversuch, Arbeitsvermittler - Einstellungen
    Date: 2015–11–26
  3. By: Manuel Amador (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis); Ivan Werning (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Hugo A. Hopenhayn (UCLA); Mark Aguiar (Princeton University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the optimal financing of an investment project subject to the risk of default. A project needs outside funding from a lender, but the borrower can walk away at any moment and take some outside opportunity. The value of this opportunity is random and not observable by the lender. We show that the optimal dynamic contract may allow default along the equilibrium path. Focusing on the dynamics of default, debt and capital accumulation, we find that over the life of the project the probability of default declines, long-term debt falls and capital rises
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Frauke Urban; Johan Nordensvard; Giuseppina Siciliano; Bingqin Li
    Abstract: There is a shortage of empirical studies on the relationship between Chinese hydropower dams and social sustainability. Comparative research on Chinese-funded and Chinese-built hydropower projects is rare. This article aims to fill parts of this gap by discussing these issues in relation to Chinese overseas hydropower dams in Ghana (Bui Dam) and Cambodia (Kamchay Dam). Both projects are built by Sinohydro and financed by ExIm Bank. This article draws on in-depths interviews and focus group discussions with local communities affected by the dams, institutional actors in Ghana and Cambodia, Chinese actors, and dam builders. The article uses an environmental justice perspective as an analytical framework. The article concludes that the dam projects could improve their social sustainability framework in practice and theory; social benchmarking should be introduced and social policies need to be improved to be in line with international social standards on hydropower projects.
    Keywords: social sustainability;hydropower;China;Ghana;Cambodia
    Date: 2015–09–09
  5. By: Eun-mee Kim; Eun-hee Ha; Mi-jin Kwon
    Abstract: Although South Korea is one of the newest members to join the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Development Assistance Committee in 2010, it has a long history of official development assistance (ODA), first as a recipient of aid (1945–1995) and later as an emerging donor (with the establishment of aid-implementing agencies for concessional loans in 1987, and for grant aid in 1991, respectively). And, global public health has been one of the three largest outreach areas of South Korea's foreign aid programmes. This article examines the global public health outreach activities of South Korea's leading aid-implementing agencies, namely Korea International Cooperation Agency, Korea Foundation for International Healthcare and Economic Development and Cooperation Fund, using data for the latest period, 2008–2012. South Korea's innovative global public health ODA through the Global Poverty Eradication Contribution is also examined. The analysis of global public health outreach activities has shown that South Korea has concentrated its foreign aid to Asia and Africa, and that a large share of its aid has been focused on health care services; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); maternal and child health (MCH); and infectious diseases. A significant regional difference was found: South Korea's aid focused on health care services and MCH in Asia, while it focused on WASH and infectious diseases in Africa. Findings have also shown that South Korea's priority countries for development cooperation have received more aid compared with non-priority countries. In conclusion, we have found that South Korea's global health outreach activities were in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), but that they lack a clear focus and do not have globally recognised initiatives or projects compared with large and traditional donors such as the United States and Japan. Further research is needed to examine the impact of the rapidly rising aid activities of South Korea, especially in global public health.
    Keywords: South Korea, global public health;official development assistance;development cooperation;aid
    Date: 2015–05–28
  6. By: Evan Borkum; Jane Fortson; Candace Miller
    Abstract: This report describes plans for the evaluation of the Transition to High-Value Agriculture Project in Moldova.
    Keywords: agriculture, irrigation infrastructure, finance
    JEL: F Z
    Date: 2015–10–21
  7. By: Anne Stenger (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech; BETA, Bureau d’Economie Théorique et Appliquée, UMR 7522 CNRS Université de Strasbourg.); Marco Buso (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech; University of Padova, department of economics and management)
    Abstract: The impact of climate change on economic activities is becoming an increasingly impor- tant issue that must be adequately taken into account by private and public stakeholders. In this paper, we study the optimal public and/or private governance necessary to adapt natural resources owned by private agents to the new weather conditions. We compare the private case with two types of public-private governances where the government inter- venes by paying part of the adaptation costs, or through contingent transfers on the basis of verifiable outcomes. We conclude that in most cases, without government intervention, the private agent underinvests. However, public intervention can be excessively costly for the society (public finance distortion). Moreover, comparing the two different public-private governances, we conclude that the best way for the government to intervene strictly depends on the type of adaptation the private agent wants to apply.
    Keywords: climate change, adaptation, externality, PPPs
    JEL: D86 D82 D62 L33 H11 C61
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Elisabete A. Silva; Ransford A. Acheampong
    Abstract: This report provides an overview of spatial and land-use planning systems in OECD countries1 focusing on: (i) the governance systems across countries, (ii) the institutional and legal frameworks for spatial planning, and (iii) the various policy instruments used at different levels of territorial governance to articulate spatial development objectives, manage physical development and protect the environment. The report draws on available academic literature and policy documents. The analysis shows a strong relationship between governance models and authority and competences for spatial planning. Spatial plans at various spatial scales are used to create the preconditions for harmonising socio-economic development goals with environmental protection imperatives. Environmental assessment constitutes another key regulatory instrument. National plans, programmes, regional development and land-use plans as well as sector plans and policies are subjected to Strategic Environmental Assessment. Individual projects resulting from these policy instruments are subjected to Environmental Impact Assessment in most countries. In all countries, environmentally-related permits work together with environmental assessments to ensure that environmental considerations are taken into account in the siting of industrial installations and mega-infrastructure projects that would have significant impacts on the environment. The main challenges associated with environmental assessment in most countries include the political nature of the assessment process, the cost (time and money) of assessment particularly to businesses, limited consultation periods, limited technical capacity of institutions, the endeavour for independence and quality of the assessment and the absence of robust legislative frameworks.<BR>Ce rapport propose un tour d’horizon des systèmes d’aménagement de l’espace et d’urbanisme dans les pays de l’OCDE2, qui met l’accent sur : (i) les systèmes de gouvernance des différents pays, (ii) les cadres institutionnels et juridiques de l’aménagement de l’espace, et (iii) les divers instruments employés aux différents échelons de gouvernance territoriale pour définir les objectifs de développement territorial, gérer le milieu physique et protéger l’environnement. Le rapport fait fond sur les travaux universitaires publiés et les documents d’orientation disponibles. L’analyse montre un lien étroit entre les modèles de gouvernance et l’autorité et les compétences en matière d’aménagement de l’espace. Les plans d’aménagement sont appliqués aux niveaux national et infranational pour intégrer les considérations sociales, économiques et environnementales dans les décisions d’allocation des ressources foncières et de répartition des activités. L’évaluation environnementale constitue un autre instrument réglementaire essentiel. Les plans et programmes nationaux, les plans régionaux d’aménagement et d’urbanisme ainsi que les politiques et plans sectoriels sont soumis à une évaluation environnementale stratégique. Les différents projets qui résultent de ces instruments font quant à eux l’objet d’une étude d’impact sur l’environnement dans la plupart des pays. Tous les pays ont couplé les autorisations liées à l’environnement à des évaluations environnementales, afin de faire en sorte que les considérations d’environnement entrent en ligne de compte dans le choix du site d’implantation des installations industrielles et des grandes infrastructures susceptibles d’avoir des incidences significatives sur l’environnement. Dans la plupart des pays, les difficultés que soulève l’évaluation environnementale tiennent surtout à la nature politique du processus d’évaluation, aux coûts qu’il induit (en temps et en argent), notamment pour les entreprises, à la brièveté des périodes de consultation, aux capacités techniques limitées des institutions et à l’absence de cadres législatifs solides.
    Keywords: governance, environmental impact assessment (EIA), land use, urbanisme
    JEL: Q58 R50 R52 R58
    Date: 2015–12–03

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