nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2015‒02‒11
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Tartu Ülikool

  1. Konzept einer Stakeholderkommunikation in Unternehmenskrisen am Beispiel von zivilgesellschaftlichen Bewegungen bei Industrie- und Infrastrukturprojekten By Kalka, Regine; Schlabbers, Martina
  2. Uncertain emission reductions from forest conservation: REDD in the Bale mountains, Ethiopia By Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; E. J. Milner-Gulland
  3. Joint R and D subsidies, related variety, and regional innovation. By Tom Broekel; Matthias Brachert; Matthias Duschl; Thomas Brenner
  4. Clean Energy - Bridging to Commercialization: The Key Potential Role of Large Strategic Industry Partners By Lawrence M. Murphy; Ron Ondechek Jr.; Ricardo Bracho; John McKenna
  5. Motivation and Incentives in Education: Evidence from a Summer Reading Experiment By Jonathan Guryan; James S. Kim; Kyung Park
  6. What methods may be used in impact evaluations of humanitarian assistance? By Jyotsna Puri; Anastasia Aladysheva; Vegard Iversen; Yashodhan Ghorpade; Tilman Brück
  7. Title: Strategic Intelligence Monitor on Personal Health Systems Phase 3 (SIMPHS 3) – eTrikala (Greece) Case Study Report By Eleftheria Vellidou; Markela Psymarnou

  1. By: Kalka, Regine (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences); Schlabbers, Martina (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The following article focuses the communication between project sponsors and civil society in large-scale projects, mainly in terms of industry and infrastructure. First, the actors of civil society and public are discussed within the context of social theory by Jürgen Habermas. In this context, social structures have a high influence on civil society. Changes like globalization, individualization and particularly the rise of internet shape the environment of civil actions. Second, a theoretical discussion on communication enters center stage. This is necessary in order to fulfil the article’s objective to make recommendations for a communication concept for project sponsors. It bases on Grunig and Hunt’s four PR model as well as on the PR concept of understanding by Burkart und Probst, which both underline the importance of consensus, two-way communication and understanding-seeking. The final concept bases on the mentioned theoretical backgrounds, on practical cases as well as on additional expert information. It contains objectives, a strategy and measures for project sponsors to communicate successfully by providing plenty of information, by including stakeholders in discussion and finally even by making decision.
    Abstract: Der nachfolgende Beitrag thematisiert die Kommunikation mit zivilgesellschaftlichen Akteuren bei Großprojekten. Ziel ist es, ein Kommunikationskonzept für Unternehmen mit Industrie- und Infrastrukturprojekten zu erstellen, um eine mögliche Unternehmenskrise aufgrund von zivilgesellschaftlichen Protesten zu verhindern oder zu beruhigen. Dazu werden in einem ersten Schritt die Akteure der Zivilgesellschaft sowie der Begriff der Öffentlichkeit sozialtheoretisch aufgearbeitet. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf der Auseinandersetzung zum Verständnis von Zivilgesellschaft, Kommunikation und Öffentlichkeit nach Jürgen Habermas. Damit eine reibungslose Kommunikation zwischen den Stakeholdern und Vorhabensträgern bei einem Großprojekt gewährleistet werden kann, bedarf es einer effektiven Krisenkommunikation. Als kommunikationstheoretische Grundlagen bedient sich dieser Beitrag dabei den PR-Modellen nach Grunig und Hunt sowie der Verständnisorientierten Öffentlichkeitsarbeit (VÖA) nach Burkart und Probst, die beide Ansätze einer konsensuellen, zweiseitigen und auf Verständigung basierten Kommunikation verfolgen. Unterstützt und veranschaulicht werden die finalen Handlungsempfehlungen kurz durch die Darstellung der Fallbeispiele Stuttgart 21 (S21), Flughafenausbau Frankfurt a. M. sowie durch das Fallbeispiel Initiativkreis Zukunft Niederrhein. Die Ergebnisse und die theoretische Aufarbeitung zur Zivilgesellschaft und Krisenkommunikation werden durch weitere Informationen, wie u.a. durch Informationsgesprächen mit Fachleuten ergänzt und zu operationalisierbare Handlungsempfehlungen für die Kommunikation bei Industrie- und Infrastrukturprojekten zusammengeführt. Im Mittelpunkt der Empfehlung steht ein einheitliches Konzept aus Zielen, Strategie und Maßnahmen, dass sich an den Grundsätzen Information (stetig über die Entwicklung im Großprojekt), Konsultation (mit den Stakeholdern diskutieren und sie anhören) und Mitgestaltung (die Stakeholder beteiligen und mitwirken lassen) orientiert.
    Keywords: Zivilgesellschaft, Krisenkommunikation, Industrieprojekt, Infrastrukturprojekt, Kommunikationskonzept, Civil Society, Crisis Communication, Industrial Project, Infrastructure Project, Communication Concept
    JEL: L2 L19
    Date: 2014–12
  2. By: Charlene Watson; Susana Mourato; E. J. Milner-Gulland
    Abstract: The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biomeaveraged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.
    Keywords: deforestation; emission reductions accounting; Ethiopia; forest carbon stocks; REDD; uncertainty
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2013–09
  3. By: Tom Broekel (1 Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University of Hanover, Germany,; Matthias Brachert (Department Structural Economics, Halle Institute for Economic Research, Germany;; Matthias Duschl (Department of Geography, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany,; Thomas Brenner (Department of Geography, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany,
    Abstract: Subsidies for R and D are an important tool of public R and D policy, which motivates extensive scientific analyses and evaluations. The paper adds to this literature by arguing that the effects of R and D subsidies go beyond the extension of organizations’ monetary resources invested into R and D. It is argued that collaboration induced by subsidized joint R and D projects yield significant effects that are missed in traditional analyses. An empirical study on the level of German labor market regions substantiates this claim showing that collaborative R and D subsidies impact regions’ innovation growth when providing access to related variety and embedding regions into central positions in cross-regional knowledge networks.
    Keywords: collaborative R and D projects, related variety, regional innovation
    JEL: L14 O31 R12
    Date: 2015–01–26
  4. By: Lawrence M. Murphy (NREL); Ron Ondechek Jr. (Kidron Corporate Advisors); Ricardo Bracho (NREL); John McKenna (Hamilton Clark)
    Abstract: This white paper explores a range of potentially attractive partnerships, including those between established US industry members, the entrepreneurial CE (clean energy) community, and the financial industry. These partnerships, include those that can leverage a wide range of entrepreneurial and industry resources that are needed to promote the development and commercialization of innovative new technologies - partnerships that in turn can lead to accelerated, global utilization of CE, as well as US global leadership for the CE industry. The need for these partnerships is discussed within the context of the growing interest in CE, driven in large part by the anticipated strong, global growth in energy demand, as well as by the need for a spectrum of other long term (e.g. environmental) benefits from CE. The impacts of the rapidly changing investment and the market environment for innovative CE technologies, are also explored. The strong need for multifaceted enabling partnerships and resources are found to go well beyond those corresponding to financing, and includes for example, expertise on markets and market creation, and product development. In addition, deep resource levels are often especially needed in the pursuit of high potential, next generation CE innovative supply technologies that require costly technology development. Such is the case for example, where sophisticated manufacturing approaches are needed to exploit promising, and high performance, material combinations along with novel and complex technology based hardware. Further, access to adequate resources for the needed, high cost, technology development is increasingly less likely to be available from traditional partners such as VCs and their limited partners. Of the key potential partners explored, Strategic Industry Partners (SIPs) are found to be particularly intriguing - they have the most robust range of appropriate resources to potentially benefit from these partnerships while also helping to fill the void in the commercialization food chain for technology development, where VC funding is not available. SIPs also play a broad enabling role for the growth of the entrepreneurial US based, CE industry. Moreover, SIPs also have the required stature and influence to impact global markets as well as to promote global US leadership in CE, while also contributing to the dialogue around public-private partnerships. While SIPs have stringent requirements for partnering, as well as intense competition for their resource investments, successfully pursuing mutually attractive partnerships with SIPs should be well worth the required effort.
    Keywords: Clean Energy, Strategic Industry Partners, High Cost Technology Development, Commercialization
    JEL: Q42 Q49 G24
    Date: 2014–11
  5. By: Jonathan Guryan; James S. Kim; Kyung Park
    Abstract: For whom and under what conditions do incentives work in education? In the context of a summer reading program called Project READS, we test whether responsiveness to incentives is positively or negatively related to the student’s baseline level of motivation to read. Elementary school students were mailed books weekly during the summer, mailed books and also offered an incentive to read, or assigned to a control group. We find that students who were more motivated to read at baseline were more responsive to incentives, suggesting that incentives may not effectively target the students whose behavior they are intended to change.
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Jyotsna Puri (International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie)); Anastasia Aladysheva (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)); Vegard Iversen (University of Manchester); Yashodhan Ghorpade (Institute of Development Studies); Tilman Brück (SIPRI, ISDC and HICN)
    Abstract: Despite the widespread occurrence of humanitarian emergencies such as epidemics, earthquakes, droughts, floods and violent conflict and despite the significant financial resources devoted to humanitarian assistance, systematic learning from such interventions using rigorous theory-based impact evaluations are very rare. The objective of this paper is therefore to examine the extent to which scientific impact evaluation methods can provide evidence to help improve the effectiveness and efficiency in humanitarian action. This paper explores the methodological options and challenges associated with collecting and generating high quality evidence needed to answer key questions about the performance of humanitarian assistance, including whether assistance is reaching the right people, at the right time, is bringing about the desired changes in their lives (effectiveness) and is being delivered in the right doses, ways and with manageable costs (efficiency). With the help of six case studies and drawing on real-life examples from the small but growing academic literature, we demonstrate how impact evaluation methods be used successfully and in an ethical manner to learn about how to improve humanitarian assistance. A key lesson from our review is that it pays to be prepared. Much information is being collected these days about the risks of various emergencies unfolding, be they sudden onset or slow onset emergencies. Hence national actors and international donors can prepare for these events and for conducting meaningful impact evaluations. Given the overwhelming needs and the lack of funds, doing more with limited resources is a key challenge for humanitarian assistance and impact evaluation is one way of achieving this.
    Keywords: impact evaluation, methodology, research design, statistics, humanitarian emergency, humanitarian assistance, disaster, violent conflict, reconstruction, aid, development
    JEL: H84 C93 O12 Q54
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Eleftheria Vellidou (VIDAVO S.A., Thessaloniki, Greece); Markela Psymarnou (VIDAVO S.A., Thessaloniki, Greece)
    Abstract: Since 2004, the office for the development of eGovernment services of the Trikala municipality (henceforth eTrikala Office) has been promoting new broadband technologies and the implementation of ICT projects for the municipality. On 8 April 2008 this office became a start up company, eTrikala S.A. The municipality of Trikala the majority shareholder owning 99% of the share capital, and the remaining 1% is owned by the local Chambers of Commerce. The first service to be implemented by eTrikala S.A. was a Telehealth centre in the municipality. Up until 2010, the centre provided telemonitoring services to chronic patients suffering from the following chronic diseases: diabetes type II, chronic heart failure, and COPD. Patients were equipped with light-weight handheld devices and could record their vital signs at home. The data recorded was periodically transferred to the municipality hospital and private physicians over the internet or GPRS for review and feedback by doctors via the telehealth centre. In 2010, the eTrikala telemonitoring services were also extended to the older population suffering from mild cognitive impairment. The service was discontinued in 2013 due to the lack of specialised health care professionals (e.g. psychologists) needed to provide advice and assistance to the home-telemonitored patients.
    Keywords: SIMPHS, eHealth, Remote Monitoring, ageing, integrated care, independent living, case studies, facilitators, governance, impact, drivers, barriers, integration, organisation
    JEL: I11 I18 O33 O38
    Date: 2014–12

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