nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2013‒12‒29
eight papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. A Psychological Contract Perspective on R&D Alliance Projects: Learning from a Close-to-Failing Case By Kaulio, Matti
  2. The European aerospace R&D collaboration network By Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.
  3. Working Paper 186 - Balancing Development Returns and Credit Risks: Evidence from the AfDB’s Experience By Yannis Arvanitis; Stampini Marco; Désiré Vencatachellum
  4. Physical Planning in Place-Making through Design and Image Building By Madureira , Ana Mafalda
  5. Investigation of ICT Firms' Decisions on R&D Investment By Wojciech Szewczyk; Juraj Stancik; Martin Aarøe Christensen
  6. Policy-induced environmental technology and inventive efforts: Is there a crowding out? By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
  7. I project bond in Italia: problemi e prospettive By Andrea Sartori
  8. Contributions for the quality of life through a participative approach for rural development – Experiences from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Eastern Germany) By Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra; Schnaut, Gitta

  1. By: Kaulio, Matti (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm)
    Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this article is to illustrate how the process model for collaborative ventures (Ariño and de la Torre, 1998) and psychological contract theory could function as analytical frameworks for investigations of R&D alliance projects. To empirically illustrate this, we have used as example an analysis of a dyadic R&D alliance, which was close to failure. Findings reveal the following results: (i) that the process model for collaborative ventures is also valid for dyadic R&D alliance projects; (ii) that the concept of psychological contracts presents an alternative perspective when describing collaboration in R&D alliance projects; (iii) that critical incidents is a common denominator in both theoretical approaches; and (iv) that, in contrast to transactional contracts, relational psychological contracts relate to a successful outcome. The managerial implication of the study is that, either manifested as points for contract re-negotiation (process-oriented alliance theory) or as violations (psychological contract theory), critical incidents are vital to manage in order to secure a successful outcome of the alliance.
    Keywords: Strategic Alliance; Outsourced R&D; Project Leadership; Qualitative Research
    JEL: L24 O15 O32
    Date: 2013–12–16
  2. By: Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.
    Abstract: We describe the development of the European aerospace R&D collaboration network from 1987 to 2013 with the help of the publicly available raw data of the European Framework Programmes and the German Förderkatalog. In line with the sectoral innovation system approach, we describe the evolution of the aerospace R&D network on three levels. First, based on their thematic categories, all projects are inspected and the development of technology used over time is described. Second, the composition of the aerospace R&D network concerning organization type, project composition and the special role of SMEs is analyzed. Third, the geographical distribution is shown on the technological side as well as on the actor level. A more complete view of the European funding structure is achieved by replicating the procedure on the European level to the national level, in our case Germany. --
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Yannis Arvanitis; Stampini Marco (African Development Bank); Désiré Vencatachellum
    Abstract: Recent debates amongst civil society organizations focusing on the governance of multilateral development banks have expressed some concerns regarding institutional capacities to ensure project quality-at-entry in line with key developmental issues. The present paper delves upon the African Development Bank’s (AfDB) “Additionality and Development Outcomes” framework practice in that respect. By reviewing the concepts that underpin the AfDB’s project quality-at-entry framework, the paper brings out the importance of well-aligned appraisal criteria with institutional priorities. The paper’s main contribution is to provide empirical regarding the extent to which key components of project quality-at-entry criteria interrelate and how they balance against credit concerns. Results suggest that at appraisal the AfDB has played an active role in achieving development outcomes, increasing the development focus of portfolio decisions. Also, results highlight that the variables taken into account during appraisal – whether they pertain to development or risk concerns - are rather independent from each other and that no assumption should be made on one variable given information on the others. Finally, findings suggest that both development outcomes and additionality considerations are important for project approval at board level. More specifically, considerations regarding financial additionality matter when it comes to AfDB value-added in a project, and concerns over household benefits, gender & social effects, government revenues and private sector development matter most when it comes to overall development outcomes. While some caveats remain to be addressed, the overall conceptual and institutional framework now in place has laid strong foundations that will help measure how these projects have performed in practice.
    Date: 2013–12–19
  4. By: Madureira , Ana Mafalda (CIRCLE, Lund University, and Blekinge Tekniska Högskola Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper discusses how physical planning works with place-making through urban design to support image creation in a municipality that aims to create a new image for its city. Two large-scale urban development projects in Sweden are analysed. The analysis focuses on official plans and documentation, and expert interviews. It distinguishes how place-making by physical planning happens through aestheticisation, the design of physical environments for specific groups of inhabitants, and by granting visual and symbolic coherence to an area aligned with the new image for the city. The construction of this image is kick-started by a flagship development, but requires that subsequent projects support complementing urban visions, so as to grant coherence to the perceptions of the new image. In the process, heterogeneity, variation and conflict are tamed and urbanity is framed for “creative classes”. The paper thus highlights potential dilemmas that place-making might create for the practice of physical planning in urban development, and contributes to the discussions on the transformation of public sector urban planning in contexts of urban entrepreneurialism..
    Keywords: Physical planning; Place-making; Urban entrepreneurialism
    JEL: O21
    Date: 2013–12–18
  5. By: Wojciech Szewczyk; Juraj Stancik; Martin Aarøe Christensen (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The formulation of a macroeconomic model applied to the analysis of EU Research and Development (R&D) funding strategies in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) under the PREDICT 2 project stipulates a specification of the transmission mechanism of R&D funding policy on firms' R&D expenditures. To enlighten the understanding of ICT firms' investment decisions, the effect of various firm characteristics on firms' R&D activities is analysed on a representative sample of ICT sector firms in 16 EU member countries. The analysis covers two aspects of the firms' R&D activity. Firstly, R&D engagement characterising those firms which undertake in-house R&D projects on a continuous basis, and secondly, R&D expenditure measured as the firms' in-house expenditure on R&D projects per employee. The report finds that reception of public funding is positively related to ICT firms' R&D activity. The relation between public funding and firms' R&D activity is found to depend on funding sources. The results also show that national and international diffusion of knowledge through firms' cooperation with other enterprises and through international trade plays an important role for firms R&D activity. Finally, the results suggest that substantial differences exist in firms' R&D activity across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: ICT industry, Research and Development, Europe 2020, Digital Agenda for Europe
    JEL: C31 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  6. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
    Abstract: Significant policy effort is devoted to stimulate the development, adoption and diffusion of environmentally- friendly technology. Sceptics worry about the effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on firms' competitiveness. Since innovation is a crucial productivity driver, a potential crowding out of inventive efforts could increase the cost of mitigating environmental damage. Using matching techniques, we study the short-term effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on non-green innovative activities for a sample of firms in Germany. We find indeed some evidence for a crowding out of the firms' in-house R&D. The estimated treatment effect is larger for firms that are likely to face financing constraints. However, we do not find negative effects on the number of ongoing R&D projects, investments in innovation-related fixed assets or on the outcome of innovation projects. Likewise, for firms with subsidy-backed environmental innovations no crowding out is found. --
    Keywords: Environmental Policy,Regulation,R&D,Technological Change,Innovation,Crowding Out
    JEL: O32 O33 Q55
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Andrea Sartori
    Abstract: The research focuses on project bonds in Italy. Project bonds are issued to finance infrastructures and public works. This financial instrument, extensively debated in Italy and in Europe, seems designed to attract private investment and to ensure financing costs lower than bank loans. Therefore, it may be of particular relevance in a historical period (and in the future) when traditional sources of funding may not be able to provide the necessary resources to build infrastructures. Chapter 1 examines the legal framework of project bonds and innovations recently (2012-2013) introduced in the Italian law. Chapter 2 reviews the evolution of investments in infrastructure spending and the problem of private capital attraction. Chapter 3 analyses the public private partnership (PPP) and project finance Italian market in order to contextualize the possible role of project bonds. Chapter 4, correspondingly, examines the European and international profiles.
    Keywords: project bond; obbligazioni di progetto; project financing; public private partnerships; PPP; partenariato pubblico privato; infrastrutture; investimenti; Europe 2020 Project Bond Initiative;
    JEL: G28 H54 K23 R42
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Pollermann, Kim; Raue, Petra; Schnaut, Gitta
    Abstract: The challenges for the quality of life in rural areas in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, connected with structural economic and demographic changes, raise the question of how to find appropriate policy interventions in the specific situation of transitions countries. One approach to bring forward rural development is LEADER, a locally managed, place-based form of policy intervention. LEADER is bottom-up oriented and participatory with own regional budgets to fund projects. There are 13 LEADER-regions in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. To discuss the question of appropriate policy interventions, experiences in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern will be considered and a comparison with the LEADER-experiences in western Germany will be made. Therefore, the findings of the evaluation of Rural Development Programs (RDPs) in six federal states in Germany will be used to examine the performance of the LEADER-approach. In general a survey of LAG-members shows positive results regarding the performance of LEADER with no major discrepancies between Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and western Germany, but there are differences in participation structures (less working groups, but a higher share of female LAG-members in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern than in western Germany) and the role of the state sector. Problems for funding innovative projects were common, especially at the beginning of the funding period. To use the original and intended strengths of the LEADER approach, greater freedom for the Local Actions Groups (LAG) would be required (also in the European policy framework). -- Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit LEADER als partizipativem Entwicklungsansatz für Ländliche Räume. Dazu werden die spezifischen Bedingungen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern im Vergleich mit westdeutschen Bundesländern untersucht und die Eignung dieses Entwicklungsansatzes zur Verbessertung der Lebensqualität betrachtet.
    Keywords: LEADER,Mecklenburg-Vorpommern,quality of Life,rural development,participation
    JEL: H4 R58
    Date: 2013

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