nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2013‒12‒15
four papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Seeds to succeed? Sequential giving to public projects By Anat Bracha; Michael Menietti; Lise Vesterlund
  2. Metodologia de Avaliação de Resultados: O Caso das Intervenções do Pac Urbanização de Favelas By Renato Balbim; Cleandro Krause; Maria Fernanda Becker; Vicente Correia Lima Neto; Maria Martha Cassiolato; Carla Coelho de Andrade
  3. How can LDCs benefit from the CDM?: A panel data analysis of determinants of CDM project hosting By Kasai, Katsuya
  4. Toward an inclusive and a little bit ethical world trading system : listening to the voices of the people in LDCs By Sato, Kan Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

  1. By: Anat Bracha; Michael Menietti; Lise Vesterlund
    Abstract: The public phase of a capital campaign is typically launched with the announcement of a large seed donation. Andreoni (1998) argues that such a fundraising strategy may be particularly effective when funds are being raised for projects that have fixed production costs. The reason is that when there are fixed costs of production simultaneous giving may result in both positive and zero provision equilibria. Thus absent announcements donors may get stuck in an equilibrium that fails to provide a desirable public project. Andreoni (1998) demonstrates that such inferior outcomes can be eliminated when the fundraiser initially secures a sufficiently large seed donation. We investigate this model experimentally to determine whether announcements of seed money eliminate the inefficiencies that may result under fixed costs and simultaneous provision. To assess the strength of the theory we examine the effect of announcements in both the presence and absence of fixed costs. Our findings are supportive of the theory for sufficiently high fixed costs.
  2. By: Renato Balbim; Cleandro Krause; Maria Fernanda Becker; Vicente Correia Lima Neto; Maria Martha Cassiolato; Carla Coelho de Andrade
    Abstract: Este texto parte do desenvolvimento de um processo de pesquisas sobre avaliação e meta-avaliação de políticas e intervenções de urbanização de assentamentos precários, e apresenta como resultado final uma proposta de metodologia para avaliação deintervenções de urbanização de favelas adequada às características e necessidades da atual política federal consubstanciada no PAC Urbanização de Favelas. Além de discorrer sobre diretrizes e princípios do processo de avaliação, é apresentado um manual de avaliação, que parte do princípio da indisponibilidade ou das dificuldades de obtenção de dados e informações, além das dificuldades em se proceder com um processo de avaliação de intervenções que se apoiam em projetos e planos precários. O texto oferece um conjunto de técnicas e estratégias que pretendem ser universais para a avaliação do amplo conjunto de intervenções de urbanização de favelas que estão sendo e serão executadas em todo o país a partir do PAC 1 e PAC 2. A metodologia foi desenvolvida a partir da sistematização de pesquisas e experiências anteriores e oferece subsídios aos órgãos federais no desempenho de suas funções e na reflexão sobre os aprimoramentos necessários. Ao longo do texto, a dupla função da avaliação é ressaltada, tanto na sua faceta de prestação de contas, transparência e controle, como na sua faceta de reflexão para o aprendizado e aperfeiçoamento contínuo. Além disso, a metodologia elaborada atualiza e revive a proposta anterior, desenvolvida pelo Ipea, do modelo lógico. O documento se apresenta como um guia para execução de avaliações, contendo orientações e dicas passo a passo para sua realização. This article has its origins on the development of a research program on the evaluation of slum upgrading interventions and policies at IPEA. The final result is a methodological proposal designed for the evaluation of slum upgrading projects included in Brazil’s “Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento” (Program for Acceleration of Growth), or “PAC”. Principles and guidelines of an evaluation process are analyzed, and a handbook of evaluation is here presented, taking into account the scarcity and difficulties of obtaining data and information on the reality of slums, as well as the usual incompleteness of plans and projects. We aim at offering a set of strategies and techniques that fit the conditions posed by the several slum upgrading projects that are presently being contracted, or will still be contracted, in a nationwide basis, both in the first and in the second phases of “PAC”. Such methodology derives from the systematization of a previous research, for IPEA has already made a meta-evaluation of completed slum upgrading projects and developed a logical model framework for the evaluation of programs’ outputs and outcomes, now adapted for project evaluation.We expect that a collection of evaluated projects will serve as inputs to the Brazilian federal government’s efforts to the improvement of slum upgrading programs.The function of evaluation, in this text, is twofold: on the one side, transparency, accountability and control; on the other side, reflection, learning and continuous improvement. Finally, this article includes a guide for the implementation of evaluation processes, containing step-by-step instructions for local evaluation teams.
    Date: 2013–11
  3. By: Kasai, Katsuya
    Abstract: The CDM plays an important role in the international GHG reduction activities. However, the distribution of CDM projects has been quite biased. Hence, considering the current distributional imbalance, this study was conducted aiming to identify the determinants of CDM project hosting in order to suggest potential measures for LDCs based on empirical evidence. By running random effects panel Tobit models, this paper sheds light on the fact that the four significant factors, GHG reduction potentials, governance levels, science and technology levels, and economic ties between host and Annex I countries in the private sector, have positive impacts on hosting CDM projects. This paper, therefore, denotes that the effective way to promote CDM activities in LDCs is to approach both sides: one is that LDCs accomplish the improvement of the significant factors by themselves; and the other is to facilitate the programmatic CDM activities by enlisting cooperation from international organisations or firms capable of investing in CDM activities in LDCs and/or providing capacity building programs. It is hoped that both Annex I and Non-Annex I countries tackle the climate change issue with stimulating the effective use of this innovative mechanism, CDM, not only in advanced developing countries but also in LDCs.
    Keywords: CDM; Kyoto Protocol; LDCs; ODA; Tobit model
    JEL: Q48 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2012–08
  4. By: Sato, Kan Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi
    Abstract: Many specialists in international trade have started saying that the era of a mega FTA is approaching. If the three poles of the global economy, namely East Asia, EU and the United States, form mega FTAs, most of the volume of global trade will be covered. That may be fine, but there will be many countries left out of the mega FTA, most of which will be the least developed countries (LDCs). Since the inception of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations in 2001, the WTO and its member countries have tried to include LDCs in the world trading system through various means, including DFQF and AfT. Although these means have some positive impact on the economic development of LDCs, most of the LDCs will never feel comfortable with the current world trading system. To overcome the stalemate in the DDA and to create an inclusive world trading system, we need more commitment from both LDCs and non-LDCs. To surmount the prolonged stalemate in the DDA, we should understand how ordinary people in LDCs feel and think about the current world trading system. Those voices have seldom been listened to, even by the decision makers of their own countries. So as to understand the situation of the people in LDCs, IDE-JETRO carried out several research projects using macro, meso and micro approaches. For the micro level, we collected and analyzed statements from ordinary people concerning their opinions about the world trading system. The interviewees are ordinary people such as street vendors, farmers and factory workers. We asked about where they buy and sell daily necessities, their perception of imported goods, export promotion and free trade at large, etc. These ‘voices of the people’ surveys were conducted in Madagascar and Cambodia during 2013. Based on this research, and especially the findings from the ‘voices of the people’ surveys, we propose a ‘DDA-MDGs hybrid’ strategy to conclude DDA negotiations and develop a more inclusive and a little bit more ethical world trading system. Our proposal may be summarized in the following three points. (1) Aid for Trade (AfT) ver. 2 Currently AfT is mainly focused on coordinating several aid projects related to LDCs’ capacity building. However, this is inadequate; for the proposed ‘DDA-MDGs hybrid’, a super AfT is needed. The WTO, other development agencies and LDC governments will not only coordinate but also plan together aid projects for trade capacity building. AfT ver. 2 includes infrastructure projects either gran aid, ODA loans and private investment. This is in accordance with the post-MDGs argument which emphasizes the role of the private sector. (2) Ethical Attitude Reciprocity is a principle of multilateral agreement, and it has been a core promise since GATT. However, for designing an inclusive system, special and differential treatment (S&D) is still needed for disadvantaged members. To compromise full reciprocity and less than full reciprocity, an ethical attitude on the part of every member is needed in which every member refrains from insisting on the full rights and demands of its own country. As used herein, the term ‘ethical’ implies more consideration for LDCs, and it is almost identical to S&D but with a more positive attitude from developed countries (super S&D). (3) Collect Voices of the People In order to grasp the real situation of the people, the voices of the people on free trade will continue to be collected in other LDCs, and the findings and leanings will be fed back to the WTO negotiation space.
    Keywords: Developing countries, International trade, Trade policy, WTO, Special and differential treatment, Development
    JEL: F13 K33 O19
    Date: 2013–12

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