nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2012‒02‒20
nine papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Développement des territoires de projet : quels enjeux pour les politiques rurales ? / Territorial development projects: what issues for rural policies ? By Marielle Berriet-Solliec; Aurélie Trouvé
  2. Resource allocation flexibility for innovation performance: The effects of breadth, uncertainty, and selectiveness By Klingebiel, Ronald; Rammer, Christian
  3. I nuovi tunnel ferroviari del Frejus e del Gottardo: un confronto politico-istituzionale By Marletto, Gerardo
  4. Firms' transition towards green product service system innovators By Tietze, Frank; Schiederig, Tim; Herstatt, Cornelius
  5. Financing Entrepreneurship and the Old-Boy Network By Inci, Eren; Parker, Simon C.
  6. R&D cooperation between Spanish firms and scientific partners: what is the role of tertiary education? By Segarra Blasco, Agustí
  7. The Impact of International Research Joint Ventures on SMEs Performance By Barajas, A.; Huergo , E.; Moreno, L.
  8. Technologies for Education (TEd) - A Framework for Action By Eugenio Severin
  9. The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania By Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, Heidi J.; Kirama, Stephen L.

  1. By: Marielle Berriet-Solliec; Aurélie Trouvé
    Abstract: Cet article part du constat du renforcement des formes de territorialisation dans le domaine du développement rural et en particulier des « territoires de projet », dont le programme européen Leader est emblématique. Il en propose une grille d'analyse des objectifs et modalités d'intervention, reposant sur les deux critères d'efficacité économique et d'équité. Il croise une littérature théorique et empirique sur la territorialisation des politiques et des travaux de recherche en cours sur l'analyse des politiques de développement rural. In fine, ces territoires de projet apparaissent comme des vecteurs de renouvellement de l'efficacité économique, mais également de remise en cause de la fonction redistributrice de l'Etat. - This article highlights the territorialization of policies and presents a framework to analyse the rural development projects, Leader being a key program. An analytical framework of objectives and implementation is proposed, depending on two criteria : economical efficiency and equity. Theoretical and empirical litterature on policies territorialization, then research studies on rural development policies, are used. Finally, these rural development projects seem to favour a renewal of economic efficiency, but weakens the redistribution function of the State, linked to the weakening of public policies in general.
    Keywords: Territoire, Projet, Développement rural, Leader, Politique publique / Territory, Project, Rural development, Leader, Public policy
    JEL: Q18 H50 R58
    Date: 2012–03–02
  2. By: Klingebiel, Ronald; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: Our study shows empirically that the choice of resource allocation strategy affects innovation performance. A policy of allocating resources to a broader range of innovation projects increases sales of new products, especially if these are truly novel, i.e. new to the market. The effect of greater breadth appears to outweigh that of increased resource allocation per project. We find further indication that the performance effect of breadth increases with commercial uncertainty. It is also stronger for firms that allocate resources more selectively at later stages of the innovation process. Based on these results, we theorize that breadth increases performance as it spreads a firm's bets on unproven innovative endeavors, and more so when these endeavors are more uncertain. Limiting resource commitments through selectiveness contains breadth's disadvantages, a combination that provides flexibility in resource allocation. --
    Keywords: innovation performance,resource allocation,uncertainty,selectiveness,innovation management
    JEL: L25 M21 O31 O32
    Date: 2011
  3. By: Marletto, Gerardo
    Abstract: Projects of the two new railway transalpine tunnel of Frejus and Gothard have similar technical characteristics: an identical length (57 km), a similar cost (10 billion Euros) and the existence of a highway along the same Alpine corridor. But, whilst the new Gothard is now under construction and should become operational in 2017, the new Frejus is at standstill at preliminary phases and has faced a very strong local opposition on the Italian side of the Alps. This difference can be explained by analysing the political and institutional framework of the two projects. The new Swiss tunnel is integrated into a national scheme of transport policy which is based on: the development of a new system of railway infrastructures, which features two new transalpine tunnels (the new Gothard and the Loetschberg); the implementation of a distance-related heavy vehicle fee, which is levied on the basis of total weight, emission level and the kilometres driven; the provision of financial resources to stimulate the transfer of transalpine freight from road to railway. The approval of such a scheme started twenty years ago: it was based on a constitutional decree, implemented through several Federal acts and supported by three confirmatory referenda. The new French-Italian infrastructure is not integrated in any transport policy scheme. The new tunnel is only partially consistent with the overall goals of the European transport policy and the Transport Protocol of the Alpine Convention (which has not yet been ratified by the Italian Parliament): actually no action for modal shift is envisaged. Moreover, the new tunnel was initially supported by a structured consultative and participative procedure – based on the ‘débat public’ technique – only in France. In Italy this megaproject was not backed by an effective deliberation process, neither at the local nor the national level; on the contrary: it was considered among the strategic projects of the so-called ‘Legge obiettivo’ and therefore it could bypass the ordinary administrative procedures (and the otherwise mandatory environmental impact assessment). The late creation of a consultative committee (the so-called ‘Commissione Virano’) and the implementation of participative procedures have not been always consistent and has not proved valid to stop the fierce opposition to the project.
    Keywords: Transport policy; Alps; Participation; Megaprojects
    JEL: H54 R42
    Date: 2011–12
  4. By: Tietze, Frank; Schiederig, Tim; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: Within this paper we explore transition paths firms can take to become product service system (PSS) innovators. Applying the dynamic capability approach we study how three firms have developed PSS innovations in the mobility sector (Car2Go by Daimler AG, Connect by Hertz by The Hertz Corporation, Better Place). We explore the different paths the firms have taken originating from different capability sets. Based on semi-structured qualitative interviews with project managers of successful PSS innovations we propose a framework that incorporates three major transition paths. We derive propositions for necessary capability sets for different firm types, the sequence of necessary capability sets along the innovation process and discuss different types of environmental gains realized through PSS. --
    Keywords: Innovation management,product service system,transition path,sustainability
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Inci, Eren (Sabanci University); Parker, Simon C. (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: We study entrepreneurs' start-up financing from banks and local financiers. An informal network, whose membership cannot be observed by outsiders, conveys the good signals it gets about the hidden types of network entrepreneurs to local financiers, which are then reflected in different loan terms. We show that there are winners and losers as a result of the network even among its members. Because all projects have positive net value, it is efficient to finance them even in the absence of a network. Thus, the formation of the network is inefficient as entrepreneurs incur networking costs for purely redistributive gains in the form of better loan terms as network members.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, financiers, networks, start-up financing
    JEL: D82 G20 L26
    Date: 2012–01
  6. By: Segarra Blasco, Agustí
    Abstract: This paper explores the factors that determine firm’s R&D cooperation with different partners, paying special attention on the role of tertiary education (degree and PhDs level) in facilitating the connection between the firms and the to scientific bodies (technology centres, public research centres and universities). Here, we attempt to answer two questions. First, are innovative firms that carry out internal and external R&D activities more likely to cooperate on R&D projects with other partners? Second, do Spanish innovative firms with a high participation of researchers with degrees or PhDs tend to cooperate more with scientific partners? To answer both questions we apply a three-dimensional approach on a firm level Panel Data with a sample of 4.998 manufacturing and services Spanish firms. First, we run a complementary test between external R&D acquisition and skilled research workers and find that firms which carry out external R&D activities obtain a greater return on R&D cooperation when they have skilled workers in R&D, especially in high-tech manufactures and KIS services. Second, we carry out a 2-step tobit model to estimate, in the first stage, the determinants that explain whether Spanish innovative firms cooperate or not; and in the second stage the factors that affect the choice of partners. And third, we apply an ordered probit model to test the marginal effects of explanatory variables on the different partners. Here we contrast some of the most interesting empirical hypotheses of previous studies, and which emphasize the role of employees with degrees and PhDs in facilitating cooperative R&D between firms and scientific partners. JEL classification: O31, O33, O38. Key words: Determinants R&D cooperation, industry-university flows, PhD research workers.
    Keywords: Empreses -- Innovacions tecnològiques, Col·laboracio empresa-universitat, 378 - Ensenyament superior. Universitats, 65 - Gestió i organització. Administració i direcció d'empreses. Publicitat. Relacions públiques. Mitjans de comunicació de masses,
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Barajas, A.; Huergo , E.; Moreno, L.
    Abstract: The objective of the present study is to analyse the effect of technological cooperation on SMEs performance consideringtwo dimensions: technological and economic results. For that purpose, we use a data set containing information about participants in research joint ventures supported by the SME-specific measures of the sixth Framework Programme. Empirical evidence corroborates a direct and positive impact on technological assets of participants. On the part of the economic indicators, EBITDA per employee and sales are positively influenced by the improvement of technological background. The same results are found for productivity. All those effects are effective in the medium term, confirming that SMEs use to be involved in market-oriented R&D projects.
    Keywords: research joint ventures; SMEs; impact assessment
    JEL: L2 H81 O3
    Date: 2012–01–30
  8. By: Eugenio Severin
    Abstract: There is a broad consensus regarding the need to improve student outcomes in the educational systems of Latin America and the Caribbean. After an attempt to institute various reforms and initiatives, the demand for quality and equity continues to be heard throughout the region. Meeting this demand will require significant changes, regarding not only the teaching of subjects that are relevant to needs of a knowledge society, but also teaching them in a way that takes full account of the educational context that 21st century society has generated. The present document presents a framework supporting the design, implementation, monitoring, and assessment of projects designed to incorporate technologies for the purpose of improving educational outcomes.
    Keywords: Education
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2011–12
  9. By: Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, Heidi J.; Kirama, Stephen L.
    Abstract: Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in resource-dependent households’ incentives to fish. With Tanzania’s Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and its internal villages as an example, we use an economic decision modeling framework as a lens to examine incentives, reaction to incentives, and implications for sustainable MPA management created by park managers’ use of enforcement (“sticks”) and livelihood projects (“carrots”). We emphasize practical implementation issues faced by MBREMP managers and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability in a poor country setting.
    Keywords: marine protected areas, sustainable marine reserves, Tanzania, practical enforcement, marine-dependent livelihoods
    Date: 2012–02–08

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