nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2011‒06‒25
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Time slack-based techniques for robust project scheduling subject to resource uncertainty. By Lambrechts, Olivier; Demeulemeester, Erik; Herroelen, Willy
  2. The link between public support and private R&D effort: What is the optimal subsidy? By Néstor Duch-Brown; José García-Quevedo; Daniel Montolio
  3. Changes in the French defence innovation system: New roles and capabilities for the Government Agency for Defence By Nathalie Lazaric; Valérie Mérindol; Sylvie Rochhia
  4. Developing Societal Progress Indicators: A Practical Guide By Dennis Trewin; Jon Hall
  5. Sequential Bargaining and Land Assembly: A New Theory of the Holdout Problem By Thomas J. Miceli; Kathleen Segerson
  6. The when and where of research in agricultural innovation trajectories: Evidence and implications from RIU's South Asia projects By Reddy, Vamsidhar; Hall, Andy; Sulaiman, Rasheed
  7. The Effect of Subsidized Employment on Happiness By Benjamin Crost

  1. By: Lambrechts, Olivier; Demeulemeester, Erik; Herroelen, Willy
    Abstract: The resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP) has been the subject of a great deal of research during the previous decades. This is not surprising given the high practical relevance of this scheduling problem. Nevertheless, extensions are needed to be able to cope with situations arising in practice such as multiple activity execution modes, activity duration changes and resource breakdowns. In this paper we analytically determine the impact of unexpected resource breakdowns on activity durations. Furthermore, using this information we develop an approach for inserting explicit idle time into the project schedule in order to protect it as well as possible from disruptions caused by resource unavailabilities. This strategy will be compared to a traditional simulation-based procedure and to a heuristic developed for the case of stochastic activity durations.
    Keywords: Robust scheduling; Project scheduling; Resource breakdowns; Proactive; Time buffering;
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Néstor Duch-Brown (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); José García-Quevedo (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); Daniel Montolio (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain))
    Abstract: The effectiveness of R&D subsidies can vary substantially depending on their characteristics. Specifically, the amount and intensity of such subsidies are crucial issues in the design of public schemes supporting private R&D. Public agencies determine the intensities of R&D subsidies for firms in line with their eligibility criteria, although assessing the effects of R&D projects accurately is far from straightforward. The main aim of this paper is to examine whether there is an optimal intensity for R&D subsidies through an analysis of their impact on private R&D effort. We examine the decisions of a public agency to grant subsidies taking into account not only the characteristics of the firms but also, as few previous studies have done to date, those of the R&D projects. In determining the optimal subsidy we use both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results show a non-linear relationship between the percentage of subsidy received and the firms’ R&D effort. These results have implications for technology policy, particularly for the design of R&D subsidies that ensure enhanced effectiveness.
    Keywords: R&D, public subsidies, evaluation
    JEL: O38 H32
    Date: 2011–06
  3. By: Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Valérie Mérindol (IMRI - Université Paris Dauphine - Paris IX); Sylvie Rochhia (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis)
    Abstract: Defence innovation systems are structured around two main groups of players that interact in the development of complex programmes: the state (the client and the government agency) and the systems integrators. Technological and institutional changes since the 1990s have affected the division of labour and knowledge in the industry. In this paper we show the origins of these changes based on information derived from 45 qualitative interviews conducted between 2000 and 2008, which demonstrate the new capabilities that have been created within the national innovation system (NIS). We explain how the role and the capabilities of the French Government Agency for Defence (Direction Générale de l'Armement - DGA) have developed from " project architect " to " project manager ". These new capabilities create new interactions in the French Defence innovation system and new roles for the DGA.
    Keywords: Technological systems, Capabilities, Knowledge, Government agency, Co-evolution, National Innovation System, Defence, Institutional Change.
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Dennis Trewin; Jon Hall
    Abstract: There is a broad recognition that the development of cross-cutting, high-quality, shared, and accessible information about a society’s progress is crucial to ensure that decision-making is simultaneously responsive and responsible at all levels. There is no single correct way to manage a project to measure societal progress - different projects will have different goals, audiences and resources. However, there are certain steps which most projects should consider when planning and implementing the process. This paper presents advice and practical guidelines for anyone who is considering running a societal progress indicators project. It identifies six key steps in the process, from defining the issue and selecting collaborators, through producing and disseminating the indicators, to ensuring they are used and remain relevant.<BR>Pour mesurer le progrès des sociétés, il est largement reconnu, l’importance cruciale de développer et de rendre accessible des informations transversales et de bonne qualité, afin d’assurer une prise de décision à la fois souple et responsable à tous les niveaux. Il existe plusieurs façons de gérer un projet sur les indicateurs de mesure du progrès de la société : chaque projet a son objectif propre, son public et ses ressources. Cependant, certaines étapes lors de la planification et la mise en oeuvre du processus devraient être envisagées pour la plupart des projets. Ce document présente des conseils et des directives pratiques pour quiconque envisage la réalisation d'un projet d'indicateurs de progrès sociétal. Il couvre six étapes principales du processus ; depuis la définition du problème et la sélection des collaborateurs, à travers la production et la diffusion des indicateurs, jusqu’ à l’assurance de leurs utilisations et du maintien de leurs pertinences.
    Date: 2010–11–17
  5. By: Thomas J. Miceli (University of Connecticut); Kathleen Segerson (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: This paper models the assembly of land as a sequential bargaining process between a buyer and individual sellers. Given Nash bargaining, prices increase with successive bargains so that the last seller obtains the highest price. The holdout problem emerges as a special case in which the buyer values individual parcels less than current owners, implying that partial assembly is not efficient. In this case, the sum of the prices that arise from the bargaining process may exceed the buyer‟s valuation, even though the overall project is efficient. As a result, some efficient assembly projects may be foregone.
    Keywords: Bargaining, holdout problem, land assembly
    JEL: D40 K11 L14 R14
    Date: 2011–06
  6. By: Reddy, Vamsidhar (RIU); Hall, Andy (RIU, LINK, Open University, and UNU-MERIT); Sulaiman, Rasheed (RIU)
    Abstract: The question of how agricultural research can best be used for developmental purposes is a topic of some debate in developmental circles. The idea that this is simply a question of better transfer of ideas from research to farmers has been largely discredited. Agricultural innovation is a process that takes a multitude of different forms, and, within this process, agricultural research and expertise are mobilised at different points in time for different purposes. This paper uses two key analytical principles in order to find how research is actually put into use. The first, which concerns the configurations of organisations and their relationships associated with innovation, reveals the additional set of resources and expertise that research needs to be married up to and sheds light on the sorts of arrangements that allow this marriage to take place. The second - which concerns understanding innovation as a path-dependent, contextually shaped trajectory unfolding over time - reveals the changing role of research during the course of events associated with the development and diffusion of products, services and institutional innovations. Using these analytical principles, this paper examines the efforts of the DFID-funded Research Into Use (RIU) programme that sought to explore the agricultural research-into-use question empirically. The paper then uses this analysis to derive implications for public policy and its ongoing efforts to add value to research investments.
    Keywords: Agricultural Innovation, Value Chain Innovation, Research Into Use, South Asia, Innovation Trajectories, Research for Development, Policy
    JEL: N55 O13 O19 O22 O31 O32 O33 O53 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Benjamin Crost
    Abstract: While a large body of evidence suggests that unemployment and self-reported happiness are negatively correlated, it is not clear whether this reflects a causal effect of unemployment on happiness and whether subsidized employment can increase the happiness of the unemployed. To close this gap, this paper estimates the causal effect of a type of subsidized employment projects - Germany's Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahmen - on self-reported happiness. Results from matching and fixed effects estimators suggest that subsidized employment has a large and statistically significant positive effect on the happiness of individuals who would otherwise have been unemployed. Detailed panel data on pre- and post-project happiness suggests that this effect can neither be explained by self-selection of happier individuals into employment nor by the higher incomes of the employed.
    Keywords: Happiness, life satisfaction, unemployment, subsidized employment
    JEL: J28 J68
    Date: 2011

This nep-ppm issue is ©2011 by Arvi Kuura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.