nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2011‒02‒19
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. La dimension conflictuelle des projets d’infrastructure : essais sur la décision publique, le contentieux et les prix immobiliers. By Pham, Hai-Vu
  2. On the joint production of research and training By António Freitas; Inés Macho-Stadler
  4. Key Principles Underlying the New Modes of Aid Governance in Asia By Caroline Brassard
  5. Does Community Driven Development Work? Evidence from Senegal By Jean-Louis Arcand; Léandre Bassole

  1. By: Pham, Hai-Vu
    Abstract: La thèse étudie l’opposition des riverains à des projets d’aménagement de l’espace. Elle défend la vision selon laquelle cette dimension conflictuelle, fréquemment rencontrée lors de la réalisation des projets d’infrastructure, n’est pas un état de dysfonctionnement à éviter dans le processus décisionnel. Composée de 4 essais qui traitent le phénomène sous différents angles, elle évoque les points principaux suivants. Les outils d’aide à la décision, dont le calcul économique public et diverses procédures de concertation, ne permettent pas d’aboutir à des décisions parfaites et incontestables. La géographie des conflits est fortement corrélée à celle de l’urbanisation et les opposants mettent en doute le principe de l’utilité publique. Le marché immobilier n’est pas indifférent aux signaux de nuisance des futurs projets, ainsi qu’à la lutte organisée des associations locales. Ainsi, la thèse soutient l’idée que la dimension conflictuelle résulte de facteurs irréductibles. Elle ne représente pas un échec, mais participe de la confrontation nécessaire entre les acteurs coexistant sur un territoire, porteurs de préférences et d’intérêts divergents. C’est d’ailleurs cette confrontation qui les contraint à discuter, à relever des points de désaccords, puis à sortir ensemble de la divergence grâce à l’action collective. L’analyse du contentieux administratif constitue la matière principale du travail. Le terrain d’étude est l’espace périurbain de l’Ile de France.
    Abstract: This thesis studies the local opposition phenomenon in carrying out public facility project. It defends the idea that the growing conflict dimension in infrastructure project is not necessarily a dysfunction to be voided in the decision making process. Composed from 4 articles, the thesis observes the phenomenon under different angles, and invokes the following major points. Decision making tools, among which the cost-advantage analysis and public consultation procedures, don’t permit to deliberate perfect and incontestable decision. The geography of conflict is highly correlated to that of urbanization. The opponents to public decision doubt about the public utility. The property market is not indifferent to signals of future project’s nuisance, as well as to the organized resistance of local associations. Hence, the thesis defend that the conflict dimension of public facility projects is resulted from irreducible factors. It doesn’t represent a failure, but a needed confrontation among coexisting actors in the same territory, actors whose interests and preferences are divergent. It is then this confrontation which will force them to have dialogue, to raise disagreement points, and get out of the divergence thanks to collective action. Administrative lawsuit study is the principal material of this work. The study area is the peri-urban area of the Ile de France region.
    Keywords: living framework; litigation; conflict; public decision; public facility project; cadre de vie; contentieux; conflit; décision publique; projet d’infrastructure;
    JEL: R52 K41
    Date: 2010–09
  2. By: António Freitas; Inés Macho-Stadler
    Abstract: Universities and research institutions have the responsibility to produce science and to provide training to new generations of researchers. In this paper, we propose a model to analyze the determinants of a senior scientist's decisions about allocating time between these tasks. The results of this decision depend upon the characteristics of the research project, the senior scientist's concern for training and the expected innate ability of the junior scientist involved. We analyze the role that a regulator can play in defining both the value of scientific projects and the future population of independent scientists.
    Keywords: Allocation of time between tasks; research and training; senior and junior scientists
    Date: 2011–02–09
  3. By: Gaelle Dechamp (COACTIS - Université Lumière - Lyon II : EA4161 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne); Berangere Szostak (COACTIS - Université Lumière - Lyon II : EA4161 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne)
    Abstract: This article develops the idea put forward by Washington and Ventresca (2004) that institutions can sustain an emergent strategy in a given field. Ordinarily considered as stable elements of that field, these institutions may be subject to change. This theoretical approach is the object of a case study set in the framework of a contest. Organized by the General Council of the Loire and aimed at SME located in its constituency, the contest goal is to encourage innovation through design. By design, one must understand a creation produced by Man for industrial and commercial use. An emergent strategy is defined as new when situated within a defined context and a specific period of time. An exploratory case study has been conducted in order to help understand how this integration works. It takes into account qualitative data such as the RFID patch project led by the DOING Company within the framework of “Design Concept” Contest. Based on the mechanisms formulated by Washington and Ventresca (2004), this analysis has been elaborated to illustrate how an emergent strategy can be successfully incorporated. Several empirical questions subsequently follow: “What are the characteristics that allow business managers settled in the Loire district to adopt a design strategy? Which fields of activity in the Loire area are the most inclined to be compatible with the design strategy? Which business projects are the most eligible for partnership with designers? How will the General Council choose the subjects for the contest in order to initiate change within institutions?
    Date: 2011–02–02
  4. By: Caroline Brassard
    Abstract: Aid governance refers to the good governance of aid processes by all stakeholders, from the design and implementation to the monitoring and evaluation of aid projects and programmes,to reach national and local development objectives. In these various processes, aid governance emphasizes the need for transparency and accountability to ensure that results are achieved in the best possible manner. Hence, good aid governance contributes directly to aid effectiveness. Based on the recent experience of several Asian developing countries and interviews in Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos with aid practitioners from donor institutions and Non Government Organizations (NGOs), this paper investigates ways to improve aid governance with all types of donors, both from public and private sources. It develops a framework for donors and recipients to ensure good governance in the management, administration and evaluation of aid at the national and sub-national levels, based on the key principles underlying the new modes of aid governance in Asia. The framework is anchored on three broad principles: disaggregation, inclusiveness and incentivization. Specifically, these principles suggest that aid governance can best be achieved: First, when efforts are put to design disaggregated accountability and transparency mechanisms at the sectoral and sub-country levels; Second, when these mechanisms are inclusive of all stakeholders--- private and public donors, direct recipients, national and local civil servants, NGOs and other affected parties; and Third,when there are proper incentives structures for these stakeholders to participate in good aid governance.
    Keywords: aid, aid governance, Asia, Asian Countries, Veitnam, Cambodia, national and sub-national NGOs, international financial relations
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Jean-Louis Arcand (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Léandre Bassole (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: Community Driven Development (CDD) programs are an extremely important component of the World Bank's portfolio in the developing world, representing close to $7 billion in 2003, yet solid empirical evidence on their impact is relatively scarce, especially for Subsaharan Africa. In this paper, we consider the impact on access to basic services, household expenditures and child anthropometrics of the PNIR (Programme National d'Infrastructures Rurales) CDD project in Senegal using a unique multidimensional panel dataset on rural households that we followed over a two-year period. Using a variety of estimation procedures, including instrumental variables, and working at different levels of aggregation, we find no evidence for an impact of the PNIR on household expenditures, but find statistically significant effects of the program on access by villagers to clean water and health services, as well as on two standard measures of child malnutrition. The latter effects are particularly important, quantitatively, for children in poor households. The identification strategy we adopt in order to assess the impact of completed projects on beneficiary welfare highlights the importance of the role played by village chiefs and sub-regional politics in determining which eligible villages receive projects and which villages do not.
    Keywords: Impact evaluation;Community Driven Development;Multidimensional panel data models
    Date: 2011–02–09

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