nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2008‒06‒07
four papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Who Gets the Money? The Dynamics of R&D Project Subsidies in Germany By Aschhoff, Birgit
  2. From the ground up: Impacts of a pro-poor community-driven development project in Nigeria By Nkonya, Ephraim; Phillip, Dayo; Mogues, Tewodaj; Pender, John; Yahaya, Muhammed Kuta; Adebowale, Gbenga; Arokoyo, Tunji; Kato, Edward
  3. Contingent Valuation of Competing Public Sector Programmes: An Experiment of Single versus Joint Evaluation By Cam Donaldson; Stephane Luchini; Jean-Paul Moatti; Christèle Protière
  4. Differentiability of Product Measures By Heidergott, B.; Leahu, H.

  1. By: Aschhoff, Birgit
    Abstract: The question of the allocation of public R&D funding is becoming particularly important when it comes to identifying the effects of state subsidies, in terms of input or output additionality. This analysis goes one important step further than the existing literature by including the time dimension. Using firm-level data on German manufacturing and knowledge-intensive service firms, this paper sheds light on the structure of the subsidy recipients over time. It turns out that participation in the funding scheme is quite stable. This is also confirmed by applying a multivariate approach. Firms having received funding in the past are more likely to be selected for public funding again. It is also important to control for the overall supply of subsidies. Besides, a firm’s size and knowledge capabilities increase the probability of entering the scheme.
    Keywords: R&D, Public Subsidies, Program Participation, Germany
    JEL: C20 H32 O38
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Nkonya, Ephraim; Phillip, Dayo; Mogues, Tewodaj; Pender, John; Yahaya, Muhammed Kuta; Adebowale, Gbenga; Arokoyo, Tunji; Kato, Edward
    Abstract: "The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and vulnerable groups. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts of Fadama II, which is a CDD project and the largest agricultural project in Nigeria. This study used propensity score matching (PSM) to select 1728 comparable project beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. The study also used double difference methods to compare the impact indicators. Our results show that Fadama II project succeeded in targeting the poor and women farmers in its productive asset acquisition component. Participation in the project also increased the income of beneficiaries by about 60 percent, which is well above the targeted increase of only 20 percent in the six year period of the project. Regarding rural infrastructure investments, we found that the Fadama II project had positive near-term impacts on beneficiaries' access to markets and transportation costs, although the study revealed surprising effects on beneficiaries' commercial behavior and statistically insignificant impacts on nonfarm activities. We also observed that Fadama II increased the demand for postharvest handling technologies but did not have a significant impact on the demand for financial management and market information. Fadama II reduced the demand for soil fertility management technologies. The decline likely reflects the project's focus on providing postproduction advisory services and suggests the need for the project to increase its support for soil fertility management and thus limit the potential for land degradation resulting from increased agricultural productivity. Overall, the Fadama II project has achieved its goal of increasing the incomes of the beneficiaries in the first year of its operation. The project has also succeeded in targeting the poor and vulnerable in its productive-asset component, even though that did not appear to increase significantly short-term household incomes among the poorest asset tercile. The unique feature that could have contributed to the significant impact of the project in a short time is its broad-based approach, which addresses the major constraints limiting the success of CDD projects that address only one or two constraints. This has implications on planning poverty reduction efforts in low-income countries. Given that the poor face numerous constraints, a CDD project that simultaneously addresses many constraints will likely build synergies that will lead to larger impacts than will a project that addresses only one or two constraints. This suggests the need for the government and donors to pool resources and initiate multipronged CDD projects rather than many isolated projects." from Author's Abstract
    Keywords: Community driven development, Poverty reduction, Propensity score matching, Difference-in-difference, Fadama,
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Cam Donaldson (University of Newcastle - University of Newcastle); Stephane Luchini (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille III - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales - CNRS : UMR6579); Jean-Paul Moatti (Faculté d'économie - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II, Epidémiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquées à l'Innovation Médicale - INSERM : U379 - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II); Christèle Protière (Epidémiologie et Sciences Sociales Appliquées à l'Innovation Médicale - INSERM : U379 - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II)
    Abstract: In this paper, we compare single and joint evaluation (JE) of competing public sector programmes in a contingent valuation exercise. Using survey data aimed at evaluating WTP for cancer interventions (n = 2628), we disantangle two types of effects of JE: informational effects and sequence effects. By the former, we<br />mean: by presenting different programmes to respondents, they will acquire more information on each programme than they would if each programme was valued in isolation. Sequence effects are underisable and induced by the JE exercise itself: changing the order of the valuation sequence induces different WTP values.<br />Our results show that there are informational effects but no sequence effects. We therefore argue that JE approaches can be added to the armoury of techniques aimed at designing better survey instruments in a way that induces informational effects without incurring problems of sequencing.
    Keywords: Single Evaluation; Joint Evaluation Willingness to Pay; Contingent Valuation; Priorities Setting
    Date: 2008–05–28
  4. By: Heidergott, B. (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie (Free University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics Sciences, Business Administration and Economitrics); Leahu, H.
    Abstract: In this paper, we study cost functions over a finite collection of random variables. For this type of models, a calculus of differentiation is developed that allows to obtain a closed-form expression for derivatives, where “differentiation” has to be understood in the weak sense. The techniques for establishing the results is new and establish an interesting link between functional analysis and gradient estimation. By establishing a product rule of weak analyticity, Taylor series approximations of finite products can be established. In particular, from characteristics of the individual probability measures a lower bound, i.e., domain of convergence can be established for the set of parameter values for which the Taylor series converges to the true value. Applications of our theory to the ruin problem from insurance mathematics and to stochastic activity networks arising in project evaluation review technique are provided.
    Date: 2008

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