nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2008‒04‒29
five papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Microstructure of Collaboration: The 'Social Network' of Open Source Software By Fershtman, Chaim; Gandal, Neil
  2. The impact of Community-Based Ecotourism Projects in Amboró National Park By Fabián Soria
  3. Capital budgeting with an efficient yield-based method: the real rate of return technique By Olivier ROUSSE
  4. Evaluating the Impact of Technology Development Funds in Emerging Economies: Evidence from Latin America By Bronwyn H. Hall; Alessandro Maffioli
  5. Key Success Factors for Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMTs)-Case Study Conducted on Selected Pharmaceutical Companies in Bangladesh By Bikash Barua and M.M. Obaidul Islam

  1. By: Fershtman, Chaim; Gandal, Neil
    Abstract: The open source model is a form of software development with source code that is typically made available to all interested parties. At the core of this process is a decentralized production process: open source software development is done by a network of unpaid software developers. Using data from, the largest repository of Open Source Software (OSS) projects and contributors on the Internet, we construct two related networks: A Project network and a Contributor network. Knowledge spillovers may be closely related to the structure of such networks, since contributors who work on several projects likely exchange information and knowledge. Defining the number of downloads as output we finds that (i) additional contributors are associated with an increase in output, but that additional contributors to projects in the giant component are associated with greater output gains than additional contributors to projects outside of the giant component; (ii) Betweenness centrality of the project is positively associated with the number of downloads. (iii) Closeness centrality of the project appears also to be positively associated with downloads, but the effect is not statistically significant over all specifications. (iv) Controlling for the correlation between these two measures of centrality (betweenness and closeness), the degree is not positively associated with the number of downloads. (v) The average closeness centrality of the contributors that participated in a project is positively correlated with the success of the project. These results suggest that there are positive spillovers of knowledge for projects occupying critical junctures in the information flow. When we define projects as connected if and only if they had at least two contributors in common, we again find that additional contributors are associated with an increase in output, and again find that this increase is much higher for projects with strong ties than other projects in the giant component.
    Keywords: Microstructure of Collaboration; network; open source
    JEL: L17
    Date: 2008–04
  2. By: Fabián Soria (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)
    Abstract: This research examines selected Community Ecotourism projects in the Amboró National Park in Bolivia, which have been established by local environmental NGOs. The objective is to investigate the impact of these projects on the livelihoods and social relations in the communities. The main question that concerns us is if the projects have been effective in reducing or alleviating poverty and vulnerability, whilst providing environmental sustainability. The research also provides insight into the impact of the projects on social, cultural and economic structures of the communities. Furthermore, it will show whether the beneficiaries see Community Ecotourism projects as an important income and activity diversification option, and if they see the projects as environmentally sustainable. These issues can determine the final outcome of the project, and thus become decisive to evaluate if such projects can be used as a strategy to improve living conditions and reduce poverty. The research relies on interviews and data collected during fieldwork in Bolivia in July-August 2007. Four different Community Ecotourism projects in the Amboró National Park were visited, as well as key informants and stakeholders.
    Keywords: Ecotourism, poverty, sustainability, Bolivia
    JEL: Q26 Q57
    Date: 2008–03
  3. By: Olivier ROUSSE
    Abstract: We develop a yield-based capital budgeting method that solves the inconsistencies of the internal rate of return (IRR) and its alternatives with the shareholders' wealth maximization objective. We thus provide an efficient technique for managers who exhibit in practice a large preference for comparing the merits of projects with rates of return. This new method, called the real rate of return (RRR), is an improvement of the modified internal rate of return (MIRR) based on the Fisher equation. Simple and fitting with managers' needs and way of thinking, the RRR has all the qualities to be accepted in practice.
    Keywords: Capital budgeting, modified internal rate of return, net present value, profitability index, Fisher equation.
    JEL: G31
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Bronwyn H. Hall (of California at Berkeley and University of Maastricht); Alessandro Maffioli (Inter-American Development Bank)
    Abstract: The paper surveys impact evaluations of government Technology Development Funds (TDF) in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Panama. All the evaluations were done at the recipient (firm) level using data from innovation surveys, industrial surveys, and administrative records of the granting units, together with quasi-experimental econometric techniques to minimize the effects of any selection bias. TDF effectiveness is found to depend on the financing mechanism used, on the presence of non-financial constraints, on firm-university interaction, and on the characteristics of the target beneficiaries. The surveyed evaluations considered four levels of potential impact: R&D input additionality, behavioural additionality, increases in innovative output, and improvements in performance. The evidence suggests that TDF do not crowd out private investment and that they positively affect R&D intensity. In addition, participation in TDF induces a more proactive attitude of beneficiary firms towards innovation activities. However, the analysis does not find much statistically significant impact on patents or new product sales and the evidence on firm performance is mixed, with positive results in terms of firm growth, but little corresponding positive impact on measures of firm productivity.
    Keywords: Innovation and R&D, Policy Evalution
    JEL: O32 O38
    Date: 2008–01
  5. By: Bikash Barua and M.M. Obaidul Islam (American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB); American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the key factors that affect implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMTs) in some selected pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh. In this regard, we go through literature review to identify success factors for implementation and based on the literature review a framework is established to examine the key success factors. We conduct a questionnaire survey to collect necessary primary information. The information is then analyzed using statistical methods namely one way analysis of variance and multiple pairwise comparisons. From the result of the analysis we draw a conclusion and provided some suggestions in context. From the research, it is found that employee motivation, degree of availability of training program, employee relation and cooperation, existence of an employee education & training program prior to implementation, safety of performing job, need for team members to be familiar with the new technology, degree of management commitment and support, degree of financial support, and availability of skill is the key factors that affect successful implementation of AMTs.
    Date: 2008–04

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