nep-ppm New Economics Papers
on Project, Program and Portfolio Management
Issue of 2007‒06‒30
seven papers chosen by
Arvi Kuura
Parnu College - Tartu University

  1. Impact Evaluation for Land Property Rights Reforms By Jonathan Conning; Partha Deb
  2. Macroeconomic Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism: The Role of Investment Barriers and Regulations By Anger, Niels; Böhringer, Christoph; Moslener, Ulf
  3. Power to the people : evidence from a randomized field experiment of a community-based monitoring project in Uganda By Svensson, Jakob; Bjorkman, Martina
  4. Konsequenzen der Strategiedebatte für die Produktion By Hans-Christian Krcal
  5. Knowledge Assisted Innovation By Benchimol, Guy
  6. The Role of R&D in Industrial Policy: Rise and fall of a research driven strategy for industrialisation By Olav Wicken
  7. Public sector research and industrial innovation in Norway: a historical perspective By Magnus Gulbrandsen; Lars Nerdrum

  1. By: Jonathan Conning (Hunter College, Department of Economics); Partha Deb (Hunter College, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: A large number of land property rights reforms, including land formalization and titling projects, are taking place around the world today. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the expected impacts of such interventions, the challenges and problems that arise in measuring and estimating these impacts, as well as survey designs and methods for purposeful impact evaluation to overcome or ameliorate these concerns. We present a practical approach to evaluation of programs that should be accessible to non-specialists interested in impact evaluation. Using a hypothetical example of a land titling program in an urban setting we illustrate with simple visual examples how the distribution of observable and unobservable characteristics of treatment and comparison group samples might change according to the nature of the program intervention and treatment selection rules ( e.g. how the project targets geographic areas or population groups, whether and how households are allowed to self-select, etc.). This visual approach focuses attention on the key importance of survey design and data collection strategies to avoid confounding effects, and eschews a good deal of the math usually required to present these issues. Most methods for impact evaluation analysis can be explained as strategies to anticipate and adjust to these sample selection issues and as efforts to maintain a balance between observable and unobservable characteristics in treatment and comparison groups.
    Keywords: Property rights, impact evaluation, land titling, land reform, average treatment effects, survey design.
    JEL: O1 O12 O17 C8 C21 P14
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Anger, Niels; Böhringer, Christoph; Moslener, Ulf
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the macroeconomic impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol based on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of international trade and energy use. Employing project-based CDM supply data we assess the relative importance of transaction costs and investment risks as well as CDM regulations through supplementarity and additionality criteria. Our numerical results show that the macroeconomic impacts of transaction costs and investment risks are negligible: Given the large supply of cheap project-based emissions credits in developing countries, compliance to the Kyoto Protocol can be achieved at a very low cost. However, regulatory restrictions such as a supplementarity criterion can substantially curtail the potential efficiency gains from where-flexibility in climate policy.
    Keywords: Kyoto Protocol, Emissions Trading, Clean Development Mechanism, Computable General Equilibrium
    JEL: C68 D61 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Svensson, Jakob; Bjorkman, Martina
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the importance of strengthening the relationship of accountability between health service providers and citizens for improving access to and quality of health care. How this is to be achieved, and whether it works, however, remain open questions. The paper presents a randomized field experiment on increasing community-based monitoring. As communities began to more extensively monitor the provider, both the quality and quantity of health service provision improved. One year into the program, there are large increases in utilization, significant weight-for-age z-score gains of infants, and markedly lower deaths among children. The findings on staff behavior suggest that the improvements in quality and quantity of health service delivery resulted from an increased effort by the staff to serve the community. Overall, the results suggest that community monitoring can play an important role in improving service delivery when traditional top-down supervision is ineffective.
    Keywords: Health Monitoring & Evaluation,Hou sing & Human Habitats,Health Economics & Finance,Disease Control & Prevention,Health Systems Development & Reform
    Date: 2007–06–01
  4. By: Hans-Christian Krcal (University of Heidelberg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper shows how traditional organizational structures within the production sector, such as quality circles, learning groups ("Lernstatt") and project teams reflect the constructivist and postmodern concepts of strategic management with their wide ignorance of purely plan deterministic aspects of strategy.
    Keywords: production, team structure, strategy, strategic management, postmodern organization
    JEL: M10 M11 B29 B59
    Date: 2007–06
  5. By: Benchimol, Guy
    Abstract: In the present world, change has become a necessity for any organization. This change may be the consequence of evolution of technology, market needs or users behaviour as well as, of course,environment (legal, geopolitical,climatic,cultural and so on); it imposes innovations into numerous fields such as products and services,processes and business models. To accomplish such innovations, knowledge management is a must from the front-end of the value chain until its concrete form that is from basic research to practical requirements. This strategic approach may be carried out through a "Project" state of mind and collaborative work for which KM provides the necessary tools.
    Keywords: knowledge; innovation; Real Time Marketing; networks; democratic corporation; participative innovation; K-Maps; human capital; basic research; thought leaders; Fuzzy Front End
    JEL: L21
    Date: 2007
  6. By: Olav Wicken (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: R&D has played a central role in Norwegian public industrial policy for only a relatively short period. Before 1963, there was little interest in linking technological research policy to a wider national industrial strategy. During the mid 1960s, attempts were made to link public research more closely to industrial development, and the state became more engaged in funding industrial R&D. During the 1980s, governments increased public industrial R&D funding substantially, and for a short period of time research became a core element in national industrial policy. However, from the early 1990s the situation again changed. Public research policy lost its significance in wider national industrial strategies.
    Date: 2007–06
  7. By: Magnus Gulbrandsen (Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Education - Centre for Innovation Research); Lars Nerdrum (Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Education - Centre for Innovation Research)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the historical role of public research organisations for industrial growth and innovation in Norway – and the changes in this role over time. Public research organisations include research institutes and higher education institutions, and we go back in time to the 19th century. Like many other countries, Norway has a large number research institutes involved in innovation, and these organisations have an equally long history as higher education institutions. Public sector research has co-evolved with the national industrial structure, and institutes and universities have played central roles in developing high technology sectors and activities as well as in modernisations of traditional industries.
    Date: 2007–06

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