nep-pol New Economics Papers
on Positive Political Economics
Issue of 2013‒04‒20
five papers chosen by
Eugene Beaulieu
University of Calgary

  1. Preferences of Voters and Young People for Political Parties, Policies, Demeny Voting System, and the Ministry of the Future: Preliminary Results of Survey of Voters and Young People Held Two Days Before the 46th General Election By Aoki, Reiko; Uwasu, Michinori; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi
  2. Presidentialism and political parties in Indonesia : why are all parties not presidentialized? By Kawamura, Koichi
  3. Does being elected increase subjective entitlements? Evidence from the laboratory By Arne Robert Weiss; Irenaeus Wolff
  4. Inequality and happiness: When perceived social mobility and economic reality do not match By Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A. V.; Schnellenbach, Jan; Gehring, Kai
  5. Political economy of low sulfurization and air pollution control policy in Japan : SOx emission reduction by fuel conversion By Terao, Tadayoshi

  1. By: Aoki, Reiko; Uwasu, Michinori; Saijo, Tatsuyoshi
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Kawamura, Koichi
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether the "presidentialization of political parties" is occurring in newly democratizing Indonesia, as argued by Samuels and Shugart (2010). In Indonesia not all parties are becoming presidentialized. Parties are presidentialized when they have a solid organizational structure and have the potential to win presidential elections. Parties established by a presidential candidate need not face an incentive incompatibility between their executive and legislative branches, since the party leader is not the "agent" but the "principal". On the other hand, small and medium-sized parties, which have few prospects of winning presidential elections, are not actively involved in the election process, therefore party organization is not presidentialized. As the local level, where the head of government has been directly elected by the people since 2005 in Indonesia, the presidentialization of political parties has begun to take place.
    Keywords: Indonesia, Political parties, Political system, Elections, Presidentialism
    Date: 2013–03
  3. By: Arne Robert Weiss; Irenaeus Wolff
    Abstract: In Geng, Weiss, and Wolff(2011), we pointed to the possibility that a voting mechanism may create or strengthen an entitlement effect in political-power holders relative to a random-appointment mechanism. This comment documents that such an effect, if it exists, is not robust.
    Keywords: Elections, Electoral campaigns, Dictator game, Social distance, Entitlement, Experiment
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A. V.; Schnellenbach, Jan; Gehring, Kai
    Abstract: We argue that perceived fairness of the income generation process affects the association between income inequality and subjective well-being, and that there are systematic differences in this regard between countries that are characterized by a high or, respectively, low level of actual fairness. Using a simple model of individual labor market participation under uncertainty, we predict that high levels of perceived fairness cause higher levels of individual welfare, and lower support for income redistribution. Income inequality is predicted to have a more favorable impact on subjective well-being for individuals with high fairness perceptions. This relationship is predicted to be stronger in societies that are characterized by low actual fairness. Using data on subjective well-being and a broad set of fairness measures from a pseudo micro-panel from the WVS over the 1990-2008 period, we find strong support for the negative (positive) association between fairness perceptions and the demand for more equal incomes (subjective well-being). We also find strong empirical support for the predicted differences in individual tolerance for income inequality, and the predicted influence of actual fairness. --
    Keywords: happiness,life satisfaction,subjective well-being,inequality,income distribution,redistribution,political ideology,justice,fairness,World Values Survey
    JEL: I31 H40 D31 J62 Z13
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Terao, Tadayoshi
    Abstract: In the early stages of the development of Japan’s environmental policy, sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions, which seriously damage health, was the most important air pollution problem. In the second half of the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s, the measures against SOx emissions progressed quickly, and these emissions were reduced drastically. The most important factor of the reduction was the conversion to a low-sulfur fuel for large-scale fuel users, such as the electric power industry. However, industries started conversion to low-sulfur fuel not due to environmental concerns, but simply to reduce costs. Furthermore, the interaction among the various interests of the electric power industry, oil refineries, the central government, local governments, and citizens over the energy and environmental policies led to the measures against SOx emissions by fuel conversion.
    Keywords: Japan, Environmental policy, Air pollution, Low sulfurization, Crude oil combustion
    JEL: N55 O13 Q28
    Date: 2013–03

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