nep-pke New Economics Papers
on Post Keynesian Economics
Issue of 2022‒10‒03
three papers chosen by
Karl Petrick
Western New England University

  1. Igniting an Intersectional Shift in Public Policy Research (and Training): Canadian Public Policy Special Lecture By Lindsay M., Tedds
  2. Health economics: A review of theoretical and empirical literature By Fatima Arib; Najat Khaldi
  3. From Plantations to Prisons: The Race Gap in Incarceration After the Abolition of Slavery in the U.S. By Melissa Rubio-Ramos

  1. By: Lindsay M., Tedds
    Abstract: Throughout the 2010s, a major focus of public policy and public policy debates was about understanding the sources of inequality and understanding the role of government in addressing income inequality. While progress has been made, significant gaps in inequality remain; gaps that go well beyond income inequality and which were emphasized throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The experiences of the pandemic have served as a reminder that individuals in society have distinct experiences, and that attention to inequality and diversity needs to be seriously incorporated into modernized policy frameworks. As governments commit to a fair recovery from COVID-19, and society is more hopeful for a more just society, what is required is a much more inclusive approach to policy analysis in order to address longstanding failures of the economy and society. In particular, modernized policy frameworks need to be more representative of, and attentive to, the experiences and struggles of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Intersectionality is an analytical tool rooted in the social justice paradigm that makes clear the links between notions of identity and the systems of power through which they play out. Intersectionality considers the ways in which our identities are formed at the intersections of various social constructs, such as race, ability, class and gender, and within broader contexts and structures of power, such as the labour market and government institutions. Fully integrating intersectionality into policy analysis could create a policy analysis structure that would advance policy agendas of diversity, inclusion, and inclusive growth.
    Keywords: Inequality, Intersectionality, Social Justice, Welfare Economics, Public Policy
    JEL: D6 H89 Z0
    Date: 2022–08–26
  2. By: Fatima Arib (Innovation, Responsabilités et Développement Durable (INREDD) - UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech], UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Najat Khaldi (Innovation, Responsabilités et Développement Durable (INREDD) - UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech], UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: Health economics is a sub-discipline of economic science concerned with the economic treatment of health. From a socio-economic point of view, health is not an isolated field. It comes from medicine, but it is also related to socio-economic and political factors. Being considered as a superior good and which has particular characteristics, it conditions the ability of individuals to produce and consume. In this paper, we will highlight the interdependencies between the economy and health, then we will analyze the main theories in health economics and finally we will show how the Economy will shape health in its image. The results of our literature review show that the main issues addressed by the health economy revolve around the economic analysis of the interrelationships between economic and social development on the one hand, and population health on the other. Our theoretical analysis shows that the main theoretical approaches in health economics (the neoclassical model, agency theory, conventional theory) are based on two hypotheses: the hypothesis of the individual rationality of actors and the hypothesis of the mode of coordination of their decisions. According to the neoclassical theory, the decisions of individuals, considered as rational, are controlled by market exchange, while the agency theory allows for the presentation of elements that help in economic policy-making. The development of medical sciences and the respect of professional ethics are thus the main contributions of the theory of conventions. These different theoretical approaches complement each other in explaining the functioning of the health care system. However, the theoretical advances made in the field of health economics are still insufficient in terms of the production of new knowledge by research, which mainly concerns the regulation and organization of the health care system.
    Abstract: L'économie de santé est une sous discipline de la science économique s'intéressant à traiter économiquement la santé. D'un point de vue socio-économique, la santé n'est pas un domaine isolé. Elle est issue de la médecine, mais elle est également liée à des facteurs socio-économiques et politiques. Étant considéré la santé comme un bien supérieur et qui a des caractéristiques particulières, elle conditionne la capacité des individus à produire et à consommer. Dans ce papier, nous allons mettre en évidence les interdépendances entre l'économie et la santé, ensuite, nous allons analyser les principales théories en économie de santé et enfin nous allons montrer commet l'Economique va façonner la santé à son image. Les résultats de notre revue de littérature montrent que les principales problématiques traitées par l'économie de santé s'articulent autour l'analyse économique des interrelations entre le développement économique et social, d'une part, et santé de la population d'autre part. Notre analyse théorique démontre que les principales approches théoriques en économie de santé (le modèle néoclassique, théorie de l'agence, théorie conventionnaliste) reposent sur deux hypothèses : l'hypothèse de rationalité individuelle des acteurs et l'hypothèse du mode de coordination de leurs décisions. Selon la théorie néoclassique, les décisions des individus, considérés comme rationnels, sont contrôlées par l'échange marchand, tandis que la théorie de l'agence permet de présenter des éléments aidant à la prise de décision en politique économique. Le développement des sciences médicales et le respect de l'éthique professionnelle constituent ainsi les principaux apports de la théorie des conventions. Ces différentes approches théoriques se complètent pour expliquer le fonctionnement du système de santé. Cependant, les avancées théoriques réalisées dans le domaine de l'économie de santé connaissent encore des insuffisances en termes de production de nouvelles connaissances par la recherche et qui portent principalement sur la régulation et l'organisation du système de soins.
    Keywords: Economics,health,health economics,Health care system,Economie,Santé,Economie de santé,Système de soins
    Date: 2022–08–07
  3. By: Melissa Rubio-Ramos (University of Cologne)
    Abstract: This paper documents the emergence of a race gap in incarceration after the abolition of slavery in the U.S. Counties that relied more on slave labor incarcerated more African Americans, with no comparable effects for whites. An increase of slave reliance by 10% increases black incarceration rates by 1.8-per-1,000. This effect is associated with an increased use of prison labor. Consistent with this, I show that arrests increase before cotton harvesting and incarceration declines after exogenous shocks that decrease the demand for labor. I find no evidence for supply-side mechanisms, according to which former slaves commit more crimes.
    Keywords: Slavery, US, Incarceration
    JEL: J15 J47 K31 N31 N91 N92
    Date: 2022–08

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