nep-pke New Economics Papers
on Post Keynesian Economics
Issue of 2022‒06‒20
eight papers chosen by
Karl Petrick
Western New England University

  1. A baseline stock-flow model for the analysis of macroprudential regulation for Latin America and the Caribbean By Esteban Ramon Perez Caldentey; Lorenzo Nalin; Leonardo Rojas
  2. A Functional Analysis of the Banking Industry By Riccardo Zolea
  3. A Model of the Relationship between the Interest Rate and the Profit Rate By Zolea, Riccardo
  4. Kenneth Boulding: A Friends' Economist By Robert H. Scott
  5. A time for action on climate change and a time for change in economics By Stern, Nicholas
  6. The impact of regulation on innovation By Philippe Aghion
  7. Education inequality By Jo Blanden; Matthias Doepke; Jan Stuhler
  8. The backlash of globalization By Italo Colantone; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Piero Stanig

  1. By: Esteban Ramon Perez Caldentey; Lorenzo Nalin; Leonardo Rojas
    Abstract: This paper provides a critical view of macroprudential regulation/policies found in mainstream and post-Keynesian economics. The paper provides a macroeconomic framework that can be used as a basis for the analysis of macroprudential guidelines and policies. It is based on on five main principles/guidelines: (i) financial fragility is endogenous and results from the normal functioning of market based economies driven by the profit motive; (ii) financial fragility can originate in the financial and real sectors of an economy; (iii) financial cycles are not necessarily driven by boom and busts and financial fragility need not originate in an economic boom; (iv) macroprudential policies should be viewed from a dynamic perspective, that is they must take into account the changes in the international financial architecture/structure and be region/country specific; and (v) macroprudential regulation/guidelines requires a truly macroeconomic framework. These principles are captured in the specification of a baseline stock-flow model for Latin America and the Caribbean with five sectors (government, central bank, financial sector, private sector, and external sector). The model is a tool that can be used for evaluating other macroprudential policies.
    Keywords: Debt, external constraint, external financial cycle, financial flows, Latin America and the Caribbean, microprudential and macroprudential regulation, stock-flow
    JEL: B59 E32 E52 F21 F41 G15
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Riccardo Zolea
    Abstract: This paper proposes a functional analysis of input, output and capital of the banking sector in an endogenous money framework with the aim of determining the aggregates on which to calculate the bank profit rate. Although banks create bank money, State money is not producible by banks, which need it as an input. Deposits are the cheapest source of central bank money already in the system, so it can be argued that deposits are inputs to the banking industry. Assuming that loans are the banking output, we investigate what role regulation plays in defining a banking production technique. The framework developed from Basel Accords imposes a level of equity proportional to the level of risk-weighted bank assets. Thus, a bank capital-to-output ratio defined by these rules is conceivable.
    Keywords: Bank; deposit; capital; input-output analysis; post-Keynesian approach; MMT.
    JEL: E51 E12 G21
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: Zolea, Riccardo (Roma Tre University)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the relationship between interest rate and profit rate. Considering that the bank must obtain on the invested capital a profit rate at least equal to the normal one, the bank interest rate can be calculated as the price of the bank output, i.e. the loan. The profit rate thus determines the interest rate, through the instrument of the price equation. Central to this study is the analysis of the best way to imagine such a price equation, considering the role of the central bank. We then move on to study the structure of interest rates and their relationship to the profit rate. Finally, by introducing the hypothesis of a bank profit rate permanently higher than the normal one, we confirm and better explain from an analytical point of view some insights expressed by Marx in Book III of Capital.
    Keywords: bank profitability; interest rate; price equation; Marx; finance
    JEL: E11 E43 G21
    Date: 2022–06–13
  4. By: Robert H. Scott (Monmouth University)
    Abstract: This paper examines Kenneth Boulding's (1910-1993) religious beliefs and argues he was one of the most prolific religious economists in the 20 th century. He was an enigmatic economist whose career spanned over six decades. He helped to establish the field of general systems and furthered peace studies and conflict and defense. His early work earned him the John Bates Clark medal in 1949. But behind Boulding's theoretical economics was a deep religious ideology. Strongly affected by World War I while growing up in Liverpool, England, Boulding became a lifelong pacifist. Raised Methodist, Boulding discovered Quakerism in high school. While Boulding published widely in the field of economics, he also published almost 100 articles in Quaker journals. Boulding's body of work in economics and Quakerism led to interesting crosspollination. His work on peace and conflict and defense were a direct result of his pacifism. Boulding's work shows deep concern for human betterment and prosperity that is seeped in his religious principles.
    Keywords: human betterment,Kenneth Boulding,pacifism,Quakers,Religious Society of Friends
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Stern, Nicholas
    Abstract: The case for action on climate change with urgency and at scale rests on the immense magnitude of climate risk, the very rapid emissions reductions which are necessary, and that there is a real opportunity to create a new and attractive form of growth and development. The analysis must be based on a dynamic approach to the economics of public policy, set in a complex, imperfect and uncertain world. The economics of climate change, and further, economics more broadly, must change to respond to the challenge of how to foster rapid transformation. It is time for economics and economists to step up.
    Keywords: climate change; economic analysis; public policy; investment; innovation; ES/R009708/1; OUP deal
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2022–05–09
  6. By: Philippe Aghion
    Abstract: It is widely feared that private sector innovation is constrained by 'red tape'. Philippe Aghion and colleagues test that view on data from France, where firms of more than 50 employees face far heavier regulatory obligations. The results suggest that regulations do hamper innovation - but the negative effects are only for incremental innovations, not radical innovations.
    Keywords: innovation, policy, France, regulation, growth
    Date: 2021–06–15
  7. By: Jo Blanden; Matthias Doepke; Jan Stuhler
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on educational inequality and reviews the literature on the causes and consequences of unequal education. We document large achievement gaps between children from different socio-economic backgrounds, show how patterns of educational inequality vary across countries, time, and generations, and establish a link between educational inequality and social mobility. We interpret this evidence from the perspective of economic models of skill acquisition and investment in human capital. The models account for different channels underlying unequal education and highlight how endogenous responses in parents' and children's educational investments generate a close link between economic inequality and educational inequality. Given concerns over the extended school closures during the Covid-19 pandemic, we also summarize early evidence on the impact of the pandemic on children's education and on possible long-run repercussions for educational inequality.
    Keywords: educational inequality, education finance, children
    Date: 2022–12
  8. By: Italo Colantone; Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano; Piero Stanig
    Abstract: We review the literature on the globalization backlash, seen as the political shift of voters and parties in a protectionist and isolationist direction, with substantive implications on governments' leaning and enacted policies. Using newly assembled data for 23 advanced democracies, we document a protectionist and isolationist shift in electorates, legislatures, and executives from the mid-1990s onwards. This is associated with a noticeable protectionist shift in trade policy - although with some notable nuances - especially since the financial crisis of 2008. We discuss the economics of the backlash. From a theoretical perspective, we highlight how the backlash may arise within standard trade models when taking into ac-count the 'social footprint' of globalization. Then, we review the empirical literature on the drivers of the backlash. Two main messages emerge from our analysis: (1) globalization is a significant driver of the backlash, by means of the distributional consequences entailed by rising trade exposure; yet (2) the backlash is only partly determined by trade. Technological change, crisis-driven fiscal austerity, immigration, and cultural concerns are found to play an important role in creating politically consequential cleavages. Looking ahead, we discuss possible future developments, with specific focus on the issue of social mobility.
    Keywords: Globalisation, protectionist and isolationist direction
    Date: 2021–09–13

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