nep-pke New Economics Papers
on Post Keynesian Economics
Issue of 2005‒11‒05
eight papers chosen by
Karl Petrick
Leeds Metropolitan University

  2. Central Banks as Agents of Economic Development By Gerald Epstein
  3. "Deconstructing Postmodernism and the Mainstream Developmental Discourse of Women's Empowerment in the (South) Asian Context" By Haider A Khan
  4. Arthur Lewis' Contribution to Development Thinking and Policy By Gustav Ranis
  5. The Undergraduate as an Engaged Explorer By Gerry Boyle; Finbarr Bradley
  6. The Evolution of Development Thinking: Theory and Policy By Gustav Ranis
  7. Inflation and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Non-linear Analysis By Robert Pollin; Andong Zhu
  8. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues By Stephan Klasen

  1. By: Philip Arestis; Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Andrea Cipollini; Nicola Spagnolo
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether during the 1997 East Asian crisis there was any contagion from the four largest economies in the region (Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Malaysia) to a number of developed countries (Japan, UK, Germany and France).Following Forbes and Rigobon (2002), we test for contagion as a significant positive shift in the correlation between asset returns, taking into account heteroscedasticity and endogeneity bias. Furthermore, we improve on earlier empirical studies by carrying out a full sample test of the stability of the system that relies on more plausible (over)identifying restrictions. The estimation results provide some evidence of contagion, in particular from Japan (the major international lender in the region), which drastically cut its credit lines to the other Asian countries in 1997.
    Date: 2005–04
  2. By: Gerald Epstein
    Abstract: In the last two decades, there has been a global sea change in the theory and practice of central banking. The currently dominant “best practice” approach to central banking consists of the following: (1) central bank independence (2) a focus on inflation fighting (including adopting formal “inflation targeting”) and (3) the use of indirect methods of monetary policy (i.e., short-term interest rates as opposed to direct methods such as credit ceilings). This paper argues that this neo-liberal approach to central banking is highly idiosyncratic in that, as a package, it is dramatically different from the historically dominant theory and practice of central banking, not only in the developing world, but, notably, in the now developed countries themselves. Throughout the early and recent history of central banking in the U.S., England, Europe, and elsewhere, financing governments, managing exchange rates, and supporting economic sectors by using “direct methods” of intervention have been among the most important tasks of central banking and, indeed, in many cases, were among the reasons for their existence. The neoliberal central bank policy package, then, is drastically out of step with the history and dominant practice of central banking throughout most of its history.
    Date: 2005
  3. By: Haider A Khan (Department of Economics, University of Denver)
    Abstract: This paper starts with an initial gesture accepting the validity of many of the criticisms of modernity by some leading postmodern thinkers. From this initial position, it then evaluates the postmodernist positions themselves with regards to democracy, women's empowerment and justice by paying careful attention to the arguments of these leading postmodernists. It then develops a theory of deep democracy and radical subjectivity which can be used to deconstruct the rhetoric of international organizations on women's empowerment. However, shallow and self-serving as this rhetoric is, it nevertheless can lead to a limited improvement in women's status contrary to the claims of the conservatives. Furthermore, the theory can also be used to de/reconstruct the liberal and social democratic positions on women's empowerment. Such a deep democratic perspective in South Asia focuses attention on enhancing social capabilities through all means, but most importantly through the political self-activities of the multitude---- particularly the radical subjectivities and actions of the most oppressed women who can and will increasingly take leading roles in overcoming the rule of global capital.
    Date: 2005–10
  4. By: Gustav Ranis (Economic Growth Center, Yale University)
    Abstract: Arthur Lewis' seminal 1954 paper and its emphasis on dualism appeared at a time when neither the work of Keynes or Harrod-Domar nor the later neoclassical production function of Solow seemed relevant for developing countries. As a consequence, his model, rooted in the classical tradition, plus its many extensions, generated an extensive literature at the center of development theory. The approach also encountered increasingly strong criticism, some of the "red herring" variety, but some, spearheaded by neoclassical microeconomists like Rosenzweig, also raised serious challenges, focused especially on its labor market assumptions. This paper reviews this landscape and asks what theoretical or policy relevance the Lewis model retains for today's developing countries.
    Keywords: Development Theory, Dualism, Labor Markets
    JEL: O11
    Date: 2004–08
  5. By: Gerry Boyle (National University of Ireland, Maynooth); Finbarr Bradley (National University of Ireland, Maynooth)
    Abstract: This paper asserts that most undergraduates leave Irish universities short-changed, never having been exposed to the riches of research. A re-conceptualisation of the research university is proposed, one founded on a culture of inquiry, interdisciplinarity and innovation. Scholarship is expanded to include engagement with communities, utilising the academy's unique multidisciplinary environment. It is argued that creativity and exploration should be essential elements in every undergraduate experience. A specific programme is used to exemplify how a responsible, civic and sustainable innovation culture can guide research and self-discovery, helping students understand how developing their own ventures can create value in society
    Date: 2005–09
  6. By: Gustav Ranis (Economic Growth Center, Yale University)
    Abstract: This paper makes an effort to trace the course of development thinking and associated development policy over the past six decades. Section I focuses on the early Post-War Consensus, with theory focused on extensions of classical dualism theory and policy concentrating on creating the pre-conditions for development. Section II traces the increasing awareness of the role of prices, a diminishing reliance on the developmentalist state and an increased reliance on structural adjustment lending associated with IFI conditionality. Section III illuminates the search for "silver bullets" which can be identified as key to the achievement of success. Finally, Section IV presents the author's assessment of where we are now and where we will, or should be, heading in the effort to achieve the third world's basic development objectives.
    Keywords: Development Theory, Development Policy
    JEL: O11 O20
    Date: 2004–05
  7. By: Robert Pollin; Andong Zhu
    Abstract: This paper presents new non-linear regression estimates of the relationship between inflation and economic growth for 80 countries over the period 1961 – 2000. We perform tests using the full sample of countries as well as sub-samples consisting of OECD countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. We also consider the full sample of countries within the four separate decades between 1961 – 2000. Considering our full data set we consistently find that higher inflation is associated with moderate gains in GDP growth up to a roughly 15 – 18 percent inflation threshold. However, the findings diverge when we divide our full data set according to income levels. With the OECD countries, no clear pattern emerges at all with either the inflation coefficient or our estimated turning point. With the middle income countries, we return to a consistently positive pattern of inflation coefficients, though none are statistically significant. The turning points range within a narrow band in this sample, between 14 – 16 percent. With the low income countries, we obtain positive and higher coefficient values on the inflation coefficient than with the middle-income countries. With the groupings by decade, the results indicate that inflation and growth will be more highly correlated to the degree that macroeconomic policy is focused on demand management as a stimulus to growth. We consider the implications of these findings for the conduct of monetary policy. One is that there is no justification for inflation-targeting policies as they are currently being practiced throughout the middle- and low-income countries, that is, to maintain inflation with a 3 – 5 percent band.
    Date: 2005
  8. By: Stephan Klasen
    Abstract: The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on “pro-poor growth”. An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and measurement of pro-poor growth. Bolivia serves as a case study to illustrate the usefulness of applying the analytical toolbox for pro-poor growth to non-income dimensions of poverty and offers some important new insights about differences in the evolution of both poverty dimensions. Growth in Bolivia has been more pro-poor in the non-income than in the income dimension. The analysis furthermore shows that extending use of the pro-poor growth toolbox to non-income dimensions of poverty greatly improves our understanding of the trends in non-income indicators. Such understanding is pivotal for a careful assessment of the linkages between income and nonincome poverty along the entire income distribution. It is equally important for poverty monitoring and for defining policy interventions. It also allows deeper analysis of the relative merits of economic growth, compared to direct intervention aimed at improving non-income dimensions of poverty. Ce document technique se propose d’élargir le débat sur « la croissance au bénéfice des pauvres ». Prendre exclusivement en compte le revenu comme dimension de la pauvreté néglige ses dimensions hors revenu. Après une étude des thèses en vue sur les liens entre croissance économique, inégalités et réduction de la pauvreté, l’article questionne la définition propre de « la croissance au bénéfice des pauvres » et la manière de la mesurer. La Bolivie présente un cas d’école illustrant l’utilité d’élargir les outils d’analyse de cette croissance aux dimensions hors revenu de la pauvreté, et elle offre de précieux nouveaux repères sur les différentes évolutions des deux sphères de la pauvreté. La croissance en Bolivie a davantage bénéficié aux pauvres dans le registre hors revenu que dans le registre du revenu. L’analyse développe qu’un recours aux outils d’une croissance bénéfique aux pauvres élargis aux dimensions hors revenu de la pauvreté améliore sensiblement notre compréhension des tendances des indicateurs de la sphère hors revenu. Une telle compréhension est fondamentale pour une appréciation judicieuse des liens entre pauvreté en matière de revenu et pauvreté hors revenu tout au long de la distribution du revenu global. C’est également important pour agir sur la pauvreté et pour définir des politiques d’intervention. Cette compréhension permet aussi d’approfondir en les comparant l’analyse des mérites relatifs de la croissance économique et des interventions directes visant à améliorer les paramètres hors revenu de la pauvreté.
    Date: 2005–09

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