nep-pay New Economics Papers
on Payment Systems and Financial Technology
Issue of 2021‒10‒25
twenty papers chosen by

  1. Reputational Assets and Social Media Marketing Activeness: Empirical Insights from China By Johansson, Anders C.; Zhu, Zhen
  2. L'impact de la numérisation sur la réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique By Kohnert, Dirk
  3. Understanding jumps in high frequency digital asset markets By Danial Saef; Odett Nagy; Sergej Sizov; Wolfgang Karl H\"ardle
  4. Does consumer protection enhance disclosure credibility in reward crowdfunding? By Cascino, Stefano; Correia, Maria; Tamayo, Ane
  5. Toward Cleaner Production: Can Mobile Phone Technology Help Reduce Inorganic Fertilizer Application? Evidence Using a National Level Dataset By Nawab Khan; Ram L. Ray; Hazem S. Kassem; Muhammad Ihtisham; Abdullah; Simplice Asongu; Stephen Ansah; Shemei Zhang
  6. Epidemic Exposure, Financial Technology, and the Digital Divide By Saka, O.; Eichengreen, B.; Aksoy, C. G.
  7. Instant payments as a new normal: Case study of liquidity impacts for the Finnish market By Hellqvist, Matti; Korpinen, Kasperi
  8. The Determinant of Positive eWOM Intention: Perspective Social Media Users By Kurniawati
  9. The digital undertow: how the corollary effects of digital transformation affect industry standards By Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.
  10. Financial Inclusion Through Fintech in the Digital Economy By Seo, Eunsook; Yoo, Kyeongwon
  11. Platform Liability and Innovation By Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili; Leonardo Madio
  12. Who bears the burden of a pandemic? COVID-19 and the transfer of risk on digital platform workers By Paola Tubaro; Antonio Casilli
  13. Online Segregation By John Lynham; Philip R Neary
  14. Evolution paths of stakeholder-oriented smart transportation systems based on 5G By Jurva, Risto; Matinmikko-Blue, Marja; Outila, Tarja; Merisalo, Virve
  15. Scaling Blockchains: Can Elected Committees Help? By Alon Benhaim; Brett Hemenway Falk; Gerry Tsoukalas
  16. Algorithms in the Marketplace: An Empirical Analysis of Automated Pricing in E-Commerce By Marcel Wieting; Geza Sapi
  17. Sharing Economy in Lithuania: Steady Development with Focus on Transportation Sector By Česnuitytė, Vida; Dromantienė, Leta; Bernotas, Dainius; Banytė, Jūratė; Vitkauskaitė, Elena; Vaičiukynaitė, Eglė
  18. Customer Satisfaction towards Mobile Food Delivery Apps during Covid-19 Pandemic By Goh Mei Ling
  19. In search of a solution to tax digital economy. By Tandon, Suranjali
  20. The great Covid cash surge - digitalisation hasn't dented cash's safe haven role By Ashworth, Jonathan; Goodhart, C. A. E.

  1. By: Johansson, Anders C. (Stockholm China Economic Research Institute); Zhu, Zhen (Kent Business School, University of Kent)
    Abstract: We explore the linkages between social media marketing activeness and reputational assets on digital platforms with a unique sample of over 8,000 customer-to-customer (C2C) sellers registered on both Taobao, China’s largest C2C online shopping platform, and Sina Weibo, China’s largest microblogging platform. A unique collaborative effort between the two platforms enables us to examine whether C2C sellers are motivated to engage in marketing activities on a separate social media platform. Applying machine learning and natural language processing methods, we first identify whether C2C sellers conduct social media marketing on their microblogs. We then differentiate between earned and owned reputation factors accumulated on both platforms and test their relationships to social media marketing activeness. We find that earned reputation factors on both platforms are significantly associated with social media marketing activeness. However, we identify a conflict of owned reputation factors between the two platforms, which provides a potential explanation for the limited success of the cross-platform collaboration.
    Keywords: social media marketing; reputational assets; electronic commerce; China
    JEL: L81 M15 M30 M31
    Date: 2021–10–15
  2. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ : Digitalization in Sub-Saharan Africa enhanced the accessibility of communications by the majority of the poor who had been excluded among others from social media, independent information channels, mobile banking and e-commerce. The creation of new economic opportunities, e.g. the pay-as-you-go business, and increased flow of information also boosted people’s self-esteem, sense of belonging and citizenship. The smartphone became the main source of internet access which also bridged the divide between urban and rural communities. Thus, mobile telecommunications contributed positively to economic growth even in less developed regions, and there is apparently still ample space for further improvement. Yet, Africans were also confronted with new forms of the digital divide between the poor and the rich, between advanced and less advanced African countries, as well as between Africa and the rest of the world. Moreover, the digitalization of the public sphere became a double-edged sword. Autocratic governments like Sudan and Togo shut down the internet during elections to facilitate the rigging of the polls. The lack of transparency and objectivity fuelled fake news which rapidly spread in social media, notably in times of the Corona crisis. Last, but not least, not everybody surfing in the internet had the same access to quality information. For example, disinformation was supported clandestinely by foreign powers to destabilize political regimes, or spy software was provided to governments to control the opposition. Both false news in social media and spy-software impeded poverty relieve in Africa significantly. RÉSUMÉ : La numérisation en Afrique subsaharienne a amélioré l'accessibilité des communications par la majorité des pauvres qui avaient été exclus, entre autres, des médias sociaux, des canaux d'information indépendants, des services bancaires mobiles et du commerce électronique. La création de nouvelles opportunités économiques, par ex. l'activité par répartition et l'augmentation du flux d'informations, ont également renforcé l'estime de soi des personnes, leur sentiment d'appartenance et de citoyenneté. Le smartphone est devenu la principale source d'accès à Internet, ce qui a également permis de combler le fossé entre les communautés urbaines et rurales. Ainsi, les télécommunications mobiles ont contribué positivement à la croissance économique, même dans les régions les moins développées, et il y a apparemment encore amplement de place pour de nouvelles améliorations. Pourtant, les Africains ont également été confrontés à de nouvelles formes fossé digital entre les pauvres et les riches, entre les pays africains avancés et moins avancés, ainsi qu'entre l'Afrique et le reste du monde. De plus, la numérisation de la sphère publique est devenue une arme à double tranchant. Des gouvernements autocratiques, comme le Soudan et le Togo, ont fermé Internet pendant les élections pour faciliter le trucage des élections. De plus, le manque de transparence et d'objectivité a alimenté les fausses informations qui se sont rapidement propagées sur les réseaux sociaux, notamment en période de crise de COVID-19. Enfin, tout le monde qui navigue sur Internet n'a pas le même accès à des informations de qualité. La désinformation était soutenue clandestinement par des puissances étrangères pour déstabiliser les régimes politiques, ou des logiciels espions fournis aux gouvernements pour contrôler l'opposition. Les fausses nouvelles dans les médias sociaux et les logiciels espions ont entravé la pauvreté en Afrique de manière significative.
    Keywords: Digitalization, Sub-Sahara Africa, digital inclusion, poverty alleviation, pro-poor growth, transparency, social media, fake news
    JEL: D31 D63 D83 E26 F35 F54 F63 G21 G23 N37 O17 O33 O55 Q48 Z13
    Date: 2021–10–20
  3. By: Danial Saef; Odett Nagy; Sergej Sizov; Wolfgang Karl H\"ardle
    Abstract: While attention is a predictor for digital asset prices, and jumps in Bitcoin prices are well-known, we know little about its alternatives. Studying high frequency crypto data gives us the unique possibility to confirm that cross market digital asset returns are driven by high frequency jumps clustered around black swan events, resembling volatility and trading volume seasonalities. Regressions show that intra-day jumps significantly influence end of day returns in size and direction. This provides fundamental research for crypto option pricing models. However, we need better econometric methods for capturing the specific market microstructure of cryptos. All calculations are reproducible via the technology.
    Date: 2021–10
  4. By: Cascino, Stefano; Correia, Maria; Tamayo, Ane
    Abstract: We study how the interplay of disclosure and regulation shapes capital allocation in reward crowdfunding. Using data from Kickstarter, the largest online reward crowdfunding platform, we show that, even in the absence of clear regulation and enforcement mechanisms, disclosure helps entrepreneurs access capital for their projects and bolsters engagement with potential project backers, consistent with the notion that disclosure mitigates moral hazard. We further document that, subsequent to a change in Kickstarter’s terms of use that increases the threat of consumer litigation, the association between project funding and disclosure becomes stronger. This evidence suggests that consumer protection regulation enhances the perceived credibility of disclosure. We find the effect of the change in terms of use to be more pronounced in states with stricter consumer protection regulations. Taken together, our findings yield important insights on the role of disclosure, as well as on the potential effects of increased regulation on crowdfunding platforms.
    Keywords: crowdfunding; Disclosure; Consumer Protection; Regulation; Enforcement
    JEL: G18 M41 O31 O38
    Date: 2019–12–01
  5. By: Nawab Khan (Sichuan Agricultural University,Sichuan, China); Ram L. Ray (Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, USA); Hazem S. Kassem (King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia); Muhammad Ihtisham (Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China); Abdullah (PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Pakistan); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Stephen Ansah (Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan, China); Shemei Zhang (Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan, China)
    Abstract: Increasing agricultural production and optimizing inorganic fertilizer (IF) use are imperative for agricultural and environmental sustainability. Mobile phone usage (MPU) has the potential to reduce IF application while ensuring environmental and agricultural sustainability goals. The main objectives of this study were to assess MPU, mobile phone promotion policy, and whether the mediation role of human capital can help reduce IF use. This study used baseline regression analysis and propensity score matching, difference-in-differences (PSM-DID) to assess the impact of MPU on IF usage. However, the two-stage instrumental variables method (IVM) was used to study the effects of mobile phone promotion policy on IF usage. This study used a national dataset from 7,987 rural households in Afghanistan to investigate the impacts of MPU and associated promotion policies on IF application. The baseline regression outcomes showed that the MPU significantly reduced IF usage. The evaluation mechanism revealed that mobile phones help reduce IF application by improving the human capital of farmers. Besides, evidence from the DID technique showed that mobile phone promotion policies lowered IF application. These results remained robust after applying the PSM-DID method and two-stage IVM to control endogenous decisions of rural households. This study results imply that enhancing the accessibility of wideband in remote areas, promoting MPU, and increasing investment in information communication technologies (ICTs) infrastructure can help decrease the IF application in agriculture. Thus, the government should invest in remote areas to facilitate access to ICTs, such as having a telephone and access to a cellular and internet network to provide an environment and facility to apply IF effectively. Further, particular policy support must focus on how vulnerable populations access the internet and mobile phone technologies.
    Keywords: mobile phone usage; propensity score matching; difference-in-difference; inorganic fertilizer usage; human capital; sustainable development; Afghanistan
    Date: 2021–01
  6. By: Saka, O.; Eichengreen, B.; Aksoy, C. G.
    Abstract: We ask whether epidemic exposure leads to a shift in financial technology usage and who participates in this shift. We exploit a dataset combining Gallup World Polls and Global Findex surveys for some 250,000 individuals in 140 countries, merging them with information on the incidence of epidemics and local 3G internet infrastructure. Epidemic exposure is associated with an increase in remote-access (online/mobile) banking and substitution from bank branch-based to ATM activity. Heterogeneity in response centers on the age, income and employment of respondents. Young, high-income earners in full-time employment have the greatest tendency to shift to online/mobile trans-actions in response to epidemics. These effects are larger for individuals with better exante 3G signal coverage, highlighting the role of the digital divide in adaption to new technologies necessitated by adverse external shocks.
    Keywords: epidemics; fintech; banking
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Hellqvist, Matti; Korpinen, Kasperi
    Abstract: The amount of central bank money, or liquidity, needed to settle payments, depends on the way the settlement is organized. It is largest when payments are settled individually on gross basis and smallest with settlement in one big netting cycle. Retail payments are increasingly processed in instant payment schemes and systems. We evaluate how the result of this transition affects the liquidity needs of the Finnish banks. For the analysis we generate artificial transaction level data, which mimics the Finnish retail payment flows processed in the STEP2 system. This allows us to estimate the difference between the liquidity needs for the settlement in a cycle based model and in a full instant payment mode. We also present a regression model for the bank level additional liquidity needs. A full migration to instant payments is expected to cause only a small aggregate increase in the liquidity needs. However, the variations between banks or between days can be significant and emphasize the need of liquidity buffers.
    Keywords: instant payments,liquidity needs,payment systems,netting
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Kurniawati (Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Fadhel Audia Yusran Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The rapid development of information technology brings a significant change in society. The presence of social media makes a shift in people's behavior. From various circles and almost everyone owns and uses social media as a means to obtain and convey information to the public. The purpose of this research is to test and analyst the factors that affect positive eWOM intention on social media. Methodology/Technique - The sample used in this study were 225 respondents using purposive sampling method. The sample used in this study are customers who have social media, access social media for the last 6 (six) months and make online purchases on these social media. Findings - Hypothesis testing is done by using the structural equation model (SEM) method with the help of AMOS software. Novelty - For further research, we can also add and analyze additional factors that affect positively eWOM intention on social media, namely CSR engagement. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    JEL: M31 M3
    Date: 2021–09–30
  9. By: Scott, Susan V.; Orlikowski, Wanda J.
    Abstract: Scholarship on digital transformation has centered on how waves of digitalization have moved through industries, producing strategic changes within and across firms and enabling new forms of value creation. In this paper, we argue that different but no less important processes of digital transformation are generated by the undertow produced by these waves. This digital undertow, a corollary effect of waves of digitalization, profoundly influences how firms operate by transforming the industry standards that coordinate and regulate their core business activities. Using a genealogical approach, we draw on findings from a longitudinal field study in book publishing to theorize the tensions and processes that constitute the digital undertow. We explain that when waves of digitalization transform firms’ core activities, they unwittingly affect how industry standards correspond with materializations of the phenomena they structure, thus influencing how standards perform in practice. A significant outcome of recent waves of digitalization in the book industry is the loss in correspondence between industry standards and novel digital materializations of the book. This is producing what we refer to as digital displacement, a process that is engendering an existential challenge to the capacity of standards to effectively coordinate and regulate industry operations in the digital age.
    Keywords: digital transformation; digital publishing; genealogy; materialization; standards
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021
    Abstract: Since the 2008 global financial crisis, including the recent COVID 19 pandemic, low interest rates and low economic growth have continued around the world. In spite of this low interest rate trend, as the economic downturn prolongs, there is a situation of concern called the “new normal” of low interest rates and low economic growth, and low prices. In this new normal economic structure, the rapid progress of aging is increasing the necessity and desire for asset accumulation. In addition, digital finance such as Fin-tech with the evolution of the underlying technologies and the emergence of new technologies has replaced or improved many functions of existing finance in the advent of the 4th industrial revolution era. These changes are expected to bring benefits to the individual and corporate finance sectors, which have been subject to financial inclusion. On the other hand, digital finance, which is changing at such a rapid pace, may further isolate some individuals who were in the blind spot of finance, such as the elderly, and a support system for this is an issue that should be included in the policy of financial inclusion in each country. In this paper we find that Asian countries like other regions have achieved tangible results in financial inclusion while achieving financial deepening. When looking through various financial inclusion indicators such as holding accounts and loans, ATMs, and bank branches, the Asian region has achieved similar or superior performance to other regions. Compared to the income level, the growth of financial inclusion in Asia was found to be attributable to better performance in middle-income countries than in other similar regions. High-income countries in Asia are performing somewhat lower than similar peer groups in other regions, but this seems to be due to stagnation of growth. More seriously, financial inclusion in low-income countries in Asia is not appearing faster than in other income groups. In Asian countries there appears to be a wide variation in regional financial inclusion. However, Asian countries are expanding around the younger generation in the use of ICT technology that is helpful in spreading financial inclusion so if digital inclusive finance centered on Fintech is properly applied, Asian countries will become a new model for digital financial inclusion. However, since the gap in the use of Fintech in the region is large, how to fill this gap is being raised as an important policy task for each country as well as the whole region. (the rest omitted)
    Keywords: Fintech; Digital Finance; Financial Inclusion; Comparative Studies of Countries
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2020–12–30
  11. By: Doh-Shin Jeon (Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse Capitole, 1, Esplanade de l’Université, 31080 Toulouse, Cedex 06, France); Yassine Lefouili (Toulouse School of Economics, University of Toulouse Capitole, 1, Esplanade de l’Université, 31080 Toulouse, Cedex 06, France); Leonardo Madio (University of Padova, Department of Economics and Management, Via del Santo, 33, 35139 Padova, Italy)
    Abstract: We study an e-commerce platform's incentives to delist IP-infringing products and the effects of introducing a liability regime that induces the platform to increase its screening intensity. We identify conditions under which platform liability is socially desirable (respectively, undesirable) by analyzing its intended and unintended effects on the innovation incentives of brand owners. We show that making the platform liable for the presence of IP-infringing products can lead to a reduction (instead of an increase) in brand owners' innovation if the platform responds to more screening by raising its commission rate. We then consider various extensions that allow us to identify additional forces that strengthen (respectively, weaken) the social desirability of liability. We conclude by presenting some implications for policymakers.
    Keywords: Platforms, Platform Liability, Intellectual Property, Innovation, Delisting
    JEL: L13 L43 L96
    Date: 2021–09
  12. By: Paola Tubaro (TAU - TAckling the Underspecified - Inria Saclay - Ile de France - Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique - LISN - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Sciences du Numérique - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CentraleSupélec, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LISN - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Sciences du Numérique - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - CentraleSupélec, Inria - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique); Antonio Casilli (I3, une unité mixte de recherche CNRS (UMR 9217) - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - X - École polytechnique - Télécom ParisTech - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, SES - Département Sciences Economiques et Sociales - Télécom ParisTech, SID - Sociologie Information-Communication Design - I3, une unité mixte de recherche CNRS (UMR 9217) - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - X - École polytechnique - Télécom ParisTech - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IP Paris - Institut Polytechnique de Paris, IIAC - Institut interdisciplinaire d'anthropologie du contemporain - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the recessionary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on digital platform workers. The crisis has been described as a great work-from-home experiment, with platform ecosystems positing as its most advanced form. Our analysis differentiates the direct (health) and indirect (economic) risks incurred by workers, to critically assess the portrayal of platforms as buffers against crisis-induced layoffs. We submit that platform-mediated labor may eventually increase precarity, without necessarily reducing health risks for workers. Our argument is based on a comparison of the three main categories of platform work – "on-demand labor" (gigs such as delivery and transportation), "online labor" (tasks performed remotely, such as data annotation) and "social networking labor" (content generation and moderation). We discuss the strategies that platforms deploy to transfer risk from clients onto workers, thus deepening existing power imbalances between them. These results question the problematic equivalence between work-from-home and platform labor. Instead of attaining the advantages of the former in terms of direct and indirect risk mitigation, an increasing number of platformized jobs drift toward high economic and insuppressible health risks.
    Keywords: Platforms,digital labor,risk,work-from-home,COVID-19
    Date: 2022
  13. By: John Lynham; Philip R Neary
    Abstract: A large number of agents from two groups prefer to interact with their own types online and also have preferences over two online platforms. We find that an online platform can be tipped from integrated to segregated without any change in the ratio of the two groups interacting on the platform. Instead, segregation can be triggered by changes in the absolute numbers of both groups, holding the Schelling ratio fixed. In extreme cases, the flight of one group from a platform can be triggered by a change in the group ratio in favor of the group that ends up leaving.
    Date: 2021–10
  14. By: Jurva, Risto; Matinmikko-Blue, Marja; Outila, Tarja; Merisalo, Virve
    Abstract: Societies are experiencing large-scale transformation through digitalization programs covering all private and public sectors. Digitalization advances also the growing demands of sustainable development, in which nations and cities all over the world have set ambitious targets. Transportation is one the cornerstone verticals of cities and has attracted wide attention from various stakeholders developing services and solutions for digitalization. In general, ICT solutions are in the core of digitalization and trailblazing technologies have been developed to enable modern transportation services. 5G technology covering wireless connectivity, IoT sensor technology, distributed edge computing, artificial intelligence, high power computing and service platforms offers numerous opportunities to the development of sophisticated smart transportation services. However, to adopt a pervasive approach for the evolvement of digital transportation services, it is important to examine the system level point of view. Developing occasional services for various transport modes without targeted inter-operability of services, the result of digitalization of transportation can be extremely fragmented. This paper aims to highlight the top-down angle of research and development of the smart transportation system. The development requires seamless co-operation of researchers and specialists of transport systems, urban design and planning and wireless technologies to integrate transport infrastructure, 5G wireless communication infrastructure and traffic management systems to enable advanced digital services for all transport modes. Moreover, this article introduces the stakeholders recognized from transport systems, urban design and planning and wireless technologies. The role of each stakeholder is described a like.
    Date: 2021
  15. By: Alon Benhaim; Brett Hemenway Falk; Gerry Tsoukalas
    Abstract: In the high-stakes race to develop more scalable blockchains, some platforms (Cosmos, EOS, TRON, etc.) have adopted committee-based consensus protocols, whereby the blockchain's record-keeping rights are entrusted to a committee of elected block producers. In theory, the smaller the committee, the faster the blockchain can reach consensus and the more it can scale. What's less clear, is whether this mechanism ensures that honest committees can be consistently elected, given voters typically have limited information. Using EOS' Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) protocol as a backdrop, we show that identifying the optimal voting strategy is complex and practically out of reach. We empirically characterize some simpler (suboptimal) voting strategies that token holders resort to in practice and show that these nonetheless converge to optimality, exponentially quickly. This yields efficiency gains over other PoS protocols that rely on randomized block producer selection. Our results suggest that (elected) committee-based consensus, as implemented in DPoS, can be robust and efficient, despite its complexity.
    Date: 2021–10
  16. By: Marcel Wieting (KU Leuven, Department of Management, Strategy and Innovation (MSI), Naamsestraat 69, 3000 Leuven, Belgium); Geza Sapi (Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics, Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstraße 1, 40225 Düsseldorf, Deutschland)
    Abstract: We analyze algorithmic pricing on, the largest online marketplace in the Netherlands and Belgium. Based on more than two months of pricing data for around 2,800 popular products, we find that algorithmic sellers can both increase and reduce the price of the Buy Box (the most prominently displayed offer for a product). Consistently with collusion, algorithms benefit from each other's presence: Prices are particularly high if two algorithms bid against each other and there is a medium number of sellers in the market. We identify several algorithmic pricing patterns that are often associated with collusion. Algorithmic sellers are more likely to win the Buy Box, implying that consumers may face inflated prices more often. We also document efficiencies due to algorithmic pricing. With a sufficient number of competitors, algorithmic sellers reduce the Buy Box price and compete particularly fiercely. Algorithms furthermore reduce prices in monopoly markets. We explain this by the inability of traditional product managers to manually adjust prices product-by-product for a large number of items, which automated agents may correct. Overall, our findings call for careful policy with respect to pricing algorithms, that considers both the risk of collusion and the need to preserve potential efficiencies.
    Keywords: Algorithmic pricing; Artificial intelligence; Collusion; Forensic economics
    JEL: D42 D82 L42
    Date: 2021–09
  17. By: Česnuitytė, Vida; Dromantienė, Leta; Bernotas, Dainius; Banytė, Jūratė; Vitkauskaitė, Elena; Vaičiukynaitė, Eglė
    Abstract: The sharing economy is a new and underdeveloped phenomenon in Lithuania, starting from the definition of the concept in a state’s legal framework and scarce statistics. The aim of the paper is to describe the trends of the digitally supported sharing economy in Lithuania. Available national and international information and data were analysed. It was shown that the most popular services in Lithuania there is the transport sector, in the second place there is the accommodation sector, in the third—food-related services. The reasons why Lithuanians offer services via collaborative platforms mostly concern additional sources of income and flexible working hours. Over two-thirds of the habitants express their positive attitudes towards sharing economy and collaborative platforms, and over ninety per cent would recommend other services offered via collaborative platforms. Though 97% of the Lithuanians have never offered the services via sharing economy and collaborative platforms, and it is mostly because of no item or interest, and two-fifths do not know at all those collaborative platforms are. The development of the sharing economy in Lithuania as far is gaining speed, and in the future, the principles of these phenomena are going to be used in an even broader scope of the sectors.
    Keywords: Accommodation Sharing; B2C Sharing; Car-Sharing; Collaborative Economy; Lithuania; P2P Sharing Platform; Sharing Economy; Sharing of Things
    JEL: L86 L91
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Goh Mei Ling (Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Ho Sew Tiep Author-2-Workplace-Name: Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Ng Zhu Er Author-3-Workplace-Name: Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - The objective of this study is to investigate the determinants of customer satisfaction towards the mobile food delivery apps during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methodology/Technique - Website quality, service quality, price, and convenience were hypothesised to explain customer satisfaction towards mobile food delivery apps. 200 respondents were recruited using convenience sampling. Due to COVID-19, the data collection was done using Google Form which consisted of respondents' profile and measurements for all the constructs in this study. All the instruments of the variables were adapted from previous studies. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was performed to assess the measurements' validity and test the relationship among the variables. Findings - Convergent validity and discriminant validity which were assessed via measurement model were satisfactory. The R-square value obtained was 0.565. This indicates that, the model explains customer satisfaction by 56.5% towards mobile food delivery apps during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings show that website quality and convenience have significantly influenced customer satisfaction towards mobile food delivery apps. Service quality and price, however, were found insignificant. Website quality has been found as the most important predictor of customer satisfaction. Novelty - This study provided an insight into the customer satisfaction towards the mobile food delivery apps from the new norm of COVID-19 measured perspective. The apps' website quality and the convenience of using the apps were revealed as important factors that impact customer satisfaction significantly during the pandemic period. Type of Paper - Empirical."
    JEL: M15
    Date: 2021–09–30
  19. By: Tandon, Suranjali (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)
    Abstract: At present the international tax system is in need of reform so as to ensure that digital corporation pay taxes in countries where they operate. The search for a global solution has resulted in divergence in approaches adopted by countries. This paper delineates the fundamental economic challenges that the tax reform seeks to address, the historical evolution of tax laws and the best possible solutions given the discord between source and residence countries. The paper finds that digital services tax, with foreign credits, can offer a final global solution amenable to developing countries.
    Keywords: permanent establishment ; digital tax ; user participation ; treaties, developing countries
    Date: 2021–10
  20. By: Ashworth, Jonathan; Goodhart, C. A. E.
    Abstract: There is a debate about the effect of the extremely low, or even negative, interest rate regime on bank profitability. On the one hand it raises demand and thereby adds to bank profits, while on the other hand it lowers net interest margins, especially at the Zero Lower Bound. In this paper we review whether the prior paper by Altavilla, Boucinha and Peydro (2018) on this question for the Eurozone can be generalized to other monetary blocs, i.e. USA and UK. While our findings have some similarity with their earlier work, we are more concerned about the possible negative effects of this regime, not only on bank profitability but also on bank credit extension more widely.
    Keywords: cash; banknote issue and withdrawal; Covid-19; panic response; coronavirus
    JEL: E40 E41 E49 N10 N20
    Date: 2021–10–07

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