nep-pay New Economics Papers
on Payment Systems and Financial Technology
Issue of 2020‒11‒02
twenty-two papers chosen by

  1. Factors Influencing Users' Behavioral Intention to Reuse Mobile Financial Services in Bangladesh By Md. Rizvi Khan
  2. Do Millennials Believe in Food Vlogger Reviews? A Study of Food Vlogs as a Source of Information By Vita Briliana
  3. Regional Differences in Retail Payment Habits in Italy By Guerino Ardizzi; Elisa Bonifacio; Cristina Demma; Laura Painelli
  4. Concentration of the Mobile Telecommunications Markets and Countries' Competitiveness By David Bardey; Danilo Aristizábal; Bibiana Sáenz; Santiago Gómez
  5. Designing an EU Intervention Standard for Digital Platforms By Peter Alexiadis; Alexandre de Streel
  6. Bitcoin Trading is Irrational! An Analysis of the Disposition Effect in Bitcoin By J\"urgen E. Schatzmann; Bernhard Haslhofer
  7. Foundations of Cryptoeconomic Systems By Voshmgir, Shermin; Zargham, Michael
  8. Does value chain participation facilitate the adoption of industry 4.0 technologies in developing countries? By Delera, Michele; Pietrobelli, carlo; Calza, Elisa; Lavopa, Alejandro
  9. The Digital Strategy of Editorial Houses: A Matter of Book Content? By Elisa Salvador; Pierre-Jean Benghozi
  11. Market Investigations for Digital Platforms: Panacea or Complement? By Amelia Fletcher
  12. Network innovation versus innovation through networks By M.Z. Yaqub; Marijana Sreckovic; Gérard Cliquet; G. Hendrikse; J. Windsperger
  13. Internal digitalization and tax-efficient decision making By Klein, Daniel; Ludwig, Christopher A.; Nicolay, Katharina
  14. Assessing the Impact of Social Network Structure on the Diffusion of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): A Generalized Spatial SEIRD Model By Giorgio Fagiolo
  15. Foundations of Cryptoeconomic Systems By Voshmgir, Shermin; Zargham, Michael
  16. Does Flagging POTUS’s Tweets Lead to Fewer or More Retweets? Preliminary Evidence from Machine Learning Models By Chipidza, Wallace; Yan, Jie
  17. The long wave of the Internet By Pietro Bonaccorsi; Massimo Moggi
  18. Endeavours: The Relationship in Social Network of Thai Student Labourers in Australia By Thanapauge Chamaratana
  20. E-commerce in France and Germany a comparative analysis By Saskia Seidel; Corinne Blanquart
  21. Do political regimes matter for technology diffusion? By Okada, Keisuke; Samreth, Sovannroeun
  22. To Buy or Not to Buy? Price Salience in an Online Shopping Field Experiment By Dertwinkel-Kalt, Markus; Köster, Mats; Sutter, Matthias

  1. By: Md. Rizvi Khan (Graduate School of Business Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand Author-2-Name: Sirion Chaipoopirutana Author-2-Workplace-Name: Graduate School of Business Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This paper aims to empirically examine the factors influencing the users' behavioral intention to reuse mobile technology to facilitate their financial services in Bangladesh. Methodology/Technique - A self-administered online survey method was used and 400 responses were collected with Likert-type questions using Google Forms as a medium. A model was developed and proposed based on different technology acceptance models like TAM, UTAUT and similar studies on factors influencing users' intention to adopt and reuse mobile financial services in Bangladesh. The proposed model was tested by performing simple and multiple linear regression using SPSS software. Findings - The results show that perceived ease of use influences perceived usefulness of mobile financial services but perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and security have no influence on trust in terms of behavioral intention to reuse mobile financial services in Bangladesh. However, with the exception of trust and perceived financial cost, the remaining variables such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, security, perceived risk, social influence and facilitating conditions significantly influence behavioral intentions to reuse mobile financial services in Bangladesh. Novelty - This study examines crucial factors spotted in literature in the context of Bangladesh. Earlier papers have primarily focused on traditional banking clients' behavioral intention toward their bank's mobile banking facilities in Bangladesh. This paper is comprehensively designed to identify influential factors of reusing non-traditional mobile financial services like bKash, Rocket, Nagad etc. at the growth level in the industry of Bangladesh. The researcher tried to identify factors influencing both bank and non-bank users to reuse mobile financial services for their digital transactions.Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: bKash; Bangladesh; Mobile Banking; Behavioral Intentions; Reuse; Mobile Financial Services
    JEL: M31 M39
    Date: 2020–09–30
  2. By: Vita Briliana (Trisakti School of Management, West Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Wasisto Ruswidiono Author-2-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management, Kyai Tapa 20 Grogol, 11440, West Jakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Tita Deitiana Author-3-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management, Kyai Tapa 20 Grogol, 11440, West Jakarta, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Developments in communication technology and social media have enabled business to enter the digital world. This can come in the form of 'vlogs' or 'video blogs' designed by 'vloggers' or 'video bloggers' to present interesting content and concepts. Food vlogs provide detailed information or explanations about the food vloggers have tried and evaluated, in an interesting video format that shows how the seller prepares the food and serves it up, and how it is consumed. The completed video is uploaded to an online channel. Many Indonesian vloggers make use of YouTube to feature their culinary activities. Their vlogs have attracted a huge audience of people looking to enjoy the latest trends in cuisine. To research the determinants of intention to use food vlogger reviews in purchase decisions, the technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to investigate the post-adoption behaviour of Indonesian Millennials in relation to online food vlogger reviews. The existence of links among the perceived benefit of online food vlogger reviews, the usefulness of mobile apps and perceived enjoyment has not been a topic of research to date. Methodology/Technique - This research uses a purposive sampling technique to select 330 Millennials who have a YouTube application, subscribers to food vlogger channels, and had bought local street food at least once after seeing a food vlogger review. The data of this study employs a path analysis with SPSS 25.0 and Smart-PLS 3. Findings - The results indicate strong positive effects of the perceived benefit of online food vlogger reviews towards purchase intentions, mobile app usefulness and perceived enjoyment in descending order of effect. Novelty - Our study has several contributions, including adding insight into the process from before consumers make a purchase; when they find all the information about street food from YouTube; then their interest in buying is generated; and finally, they purchase the food and drinks they have chosen. They can also be reassured that, despite this all happening amidst the Covid-19 pandemic, they need not worry because the seller is adhering to the procedures established by the Government. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Perceived Benefit; Mobile App Usefulness; Perceived Enjoyment; Attitude; Intention to Use Food Vlogger Reviews; YouTube; Millennial.
    JEL: M31 M37
    Date: 2020–09–30
  3. By: Guerino Ardizzi (Bank of Italy); Elisa Bonifacio (Bank of Italy); Cristina Demma (Bank of Italy); Laura Painelli (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: Economic operators have a number of different procedures and instruments for regulating their cashless monetary transactions safely and quickly. Nevertheless, divergences in the use of non-cash payment instruments persist among European countries and, in Italy, between the Centre and North and the southern regions. In this paper, we study which factors are associated with the backwardness of South and Islands in the use of non-cash payment instruments. We focus on the period 2013-18, when there was a widespread increase in non-cash transactions among the main advanced economies, spurred by technological innovation and the new legal framework supporting security, efficiency and transparency in digital payments. We find that the main factors associated with a lower demand for cash are technological innovation in payments and the population’s digital skills and education levels; criminality and tax evasion are also significantly and positively correlated to the use of cash, but their correlations with the observed heterogeneity among Italian provinces are not predominant.
    Keywords: payment instruments, cash demand, retail payments, technological innovation
    JEL: E41 E42 G21 G23
    Date: 2020–09
  4. By: David Bardey; Danilo Aristizábal; Bibiana Sáenz; Santiago Gómez
    Abstract: Developing a database that includes 59 countries, our study sheds light on the role of mobile telecommunications markets' concentration on countries' competitiveness. Performing several estimations and using an instrumental variable that aims to explain the degree of concentration in mobile phone markets, we find that the higher is the concentration in this industry, the lower is the use of the information technology and communication (ICT). On the other hand, we also find that the use of ITC is positively correlated to countries' competitiveness. Thus, our results reveal positive spillover effects of the mobile phone industry on countries' competitiveness and suggest that all policies that aim to reduce concentration and market power in the mobile phone industry is welcomed.
    Keywords: Market structure, Concentration, Competitiveness, Telecommunications industry.
    JEL: L11 O33
    Date: 2020–10–16
  5. By: Peter Alexiadis; Alexandre de Streel
    Abstract: A consensus is emerging around the world about the need for policymakers to address certain characteristics and competitive tendencies that are generated by digital platforms or digital ecosystems, with a view to reforming the public policy instruments currently in place so that they are fit for the digital age. The paper starts by reviewing the relevant precedents under EU competition law and economic regulation upon which this reform could be based. The paper then puts forward recommendations to adapt competition rules, in particular as regards the determination of market power (e.g., by better taking into account the effects of ecosystems, the impact of potential competition and the role of innovation) and the application of theories of harm (i.e. by focusing on leveraging and envelopment behaviour, access to key innovation capabilities, discrimination and self-preferencing and the violation of normative regulatory principles). The paper then proceeds to propose a cumulative 'three criteria test' to determine the types of digital platforms upon which competition rules, and possibly complementary regulation, should focus. These three criteria require an assessment of: (i) the existence of market structures which are highly concentrated and non-contestable; (ii) the presence of digital gatekeepers which act as unavoidable trading partners; (iii) and, for the purposes of ex ante regulation, the lack of effectiveness of competition rules to address the identified problems in the market. The paper also considers the types of remedies that could be imposed on those identified digital platforms, including: interoperability and access to key innovation capabilities such as data; the prohibition of anti-competitive discrimination; and the facilitation of consumer switching. Given the rapid evolution of technology and market uncertainty, consideration should be given as to whether these remedies should be imposed in a participatory manner with the industry stakeholders directly affected by the measures. Finally, the paper deals with a number of procedural and institutional issues raised by the adoption of such a legal standard, proposing to adapt existing antitrust guidelines, to extend the power of DG Competition to conduct fully fledged market investigations (as is the case in the UK and Australia) and possibly to work closely with National Regulatory Agencies, coordination with whom at EU level arguably needs to be strengthened.
    Keywords: Digital markets, Online Platforms, Antitrust, Economic Regulation, European Union, Regulation
    Date: 2020–02
  6. By: J\"urgen E. Schatzmann; Bernhard Haslhofer
    Abstract: Investors tend to sell their winning investments and hold onto their losers. This phenomenon, known as the \emph{disposition effect} in the field of behavioural finance, is well-known and its prevalence has been shown in a number of existing markets. But what about new atypical markets like cryptocurrencies? Do investors act as irrationally as in traditional markets? One might suspect this and hypothesise that cryptocurrency sells occur more frequently in positive market conditions and less frequently in negative market conditions. However, there is still no empirical evidence to support this. In this paper, we expand on existing research and empirically investigate the prevalence of the disposition effect in Bitcoin by testing this hypothesis. Our results show that investors are indeed subject to the disposition effect, tending to sell their winning positions too soon and holding on to their losing position for too long. This effect is very prominently evident from the boom and bust year 2017 onwards, confirmed via most of the applied technical indicators. In this study, we show that Bitcoin traders act just as irrationally as traders in other, more established markets.
    Date: 2020–10
  7. By: Voshmgir, Shermin; Zargham, Michael
    Abstract: Blockchain networks and similar cryptoeconomic networks aresystems, specifically complex systems. They are adaptive networkswith multi-scale spatiotemporal dynamics. Individual actions towards a collective goal are incentivized with "purpose-driven" tokens. These tokens are equipped with cryptoeconomic mechanisms allowing a decentralized network to simultaneously maintain a universal state layer, support peer-to-peer settlement, andincentivize collective action. These networks therefore provide a mission-critical and safety-critical regulatory infrastructure for autonomous agents in untrusted economic networks. They also provide a rich, real-time data set reflecting all economic activities in their systems. Advances in data science and network sciencecan thus be leveraged to design and analyze these economic systems in a manner consistent with the best practices of modern systems engineering. Research that reflects all aspects of these socioeconomic networks needs (i) a complex systems approach, (ii) interdisciplinary research, and (iii) a combination of economic and engineering methods, here referred to as "economic systems engineering", for the regulation and control of these socio-economicsystems. This manuscript provides foundations for further research activities that build on these assumptions, including specific research questions and methodologies for future research in this field.
    Keywords: blockchain, bitcoin, cryptoeconomics, tokens, complex systems, system theory, systems engineering, economics, network science
    Date: 2019–11–16
  8. By: Delera, Michele (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Pietrobelli, carlo (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and University Roma Tre); Calza, Elisa (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, and UNIDO); Lavopa, Alejandro (UNIDO)
    Abstract: The adoption of new technology is a key driver of firm performance and economic development. In this paper, we develop a framework for the firm-level analysis of the adoption of digital technology in developing economies. We investigate whether firms' participation to global value chains (GVCs) can facilitate the adoption of digital technologies. Using a novel database on the adoption of different generations of technology by manufacturing firms in Ghana, Vietnam, and Thailand, we document that the adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies remains extremely limited. We also find that firms' participation to GVCs is an important driver of digital technology adoption, and that adoption is positively associated with firm-level performance.
    Keywords: Value Chain, GVCs, Industry 4.0, Technology adoption, Economic development, Capabilities
    JEL: O12 O14 O33
    Date: 2020–10–12
  9. By: Elisa Salvador (ESSCA - Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Commerciales d'Angers); Pierre-Jean Benghozi (X-DEP-MIE - Département de Management de l'Innovation et Entreprenariat de l'École polytechnique - X - École polytechnique)
    Abstract: Traditional editorial houses are now confronted with the emergence of the online diffusion of e-books. This phenomenon has forced publishing houses to also make their catalogue of printed books available as digital versions. However, it would be inaccurate to envision and report on the digital strategies of publishing houses in a global way since digitisation has very different effects according to the various types of books: dictionaries, illustrated books or novels, for example. The aim of this article is therefore to examine to what extent the type and categories of books influence — or not — in a differentiated way the behaviour of publishers in their digitisation strategies and the design of their e-book catalogues. The expected results should reflect divergent approaches towards proactive behaviour and the appropriation of e-book technologies. Not all publishers are on the path towards publishing in digital formats. Consequently, this article provides a comparative analysis of catalogues of printed books and e-books. It compares the strategy of 104 editorial houses, focusing on a specific country – in this case, France. The most widely diffused book categories with the total number of books available in printed and digital formats have been identified for every editorial house analysed. The analysis is supported and processed thanks to the use of the national systematic databank of French publishers (Electre). The results shed light on the effective influence of the digital book on printed book categories and make it possible to characterise accordingly the strategies of editorial houses in the digital age.
    Abstract: Les maisons d'édition traditionnelles sont aujourd'hui confrontées à l'émergence de la diffusion en ligne de livres électroniques. Ce phénomène a contraint les maisons d'édition à rendre leur catalogue de livres imprimés également disponible en version numérique. Cependant, il ne serait pas juste d'envisager et rendre compte des stratégies numériques des maisons d'édition de manière uniquement globale. Car la numérisation a des effets très différents selon les différents genres de livres : dictionnaires, livres illustrés ou romans, par exemple. L'objectif de cet article est donc d'examiner dans quelle mesure le type et les catégories de livres influencent - ou non - de manière différenciée le comportement des éditeurs dans leurs stratégies de numérisation et la conception de leurs catalogues de livres électroniques. Tous les éditeurs ne sont pas engagés de la même manière pour publier en formats numériques. Notre hypothèse était que l'analyse des catalogues reflète des approches divergentes en matière d'anticipation et d'appropriation des technologies du livre électronique. Cet article propose une analyse comparative des catalogues de livres imprimés et de livres électroniques. Il compare la stratégie de 104 maisons d'édition, en se concentrant sur un pays spécifique, en l'occurrence la France. Nous avons identifié et analysé, pour chacune de ces maisons d'édition les catégories de livres les plus diffusées ainsi que le nombre total de livres disponibles en formats imprimés et numériques. Cette étude s'appuie sur la banque de données systématique nationale des éditeurs français (Electre). Au final, les résultats mettent en lumière l'influence effective des catégories de livres imprimés sur a disponibilité des livres numériques. Ils permettent de caractériser en conséquence les stratégies des maisons d'édition à l'ère numérique.
    Keywords: cultural and creative industries,book publishing industry,e-book,e-readers,book catalogue
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Lucian Gheorghe Nastase (Valahia University of Targoviste)
    Abstract: Blockchain technology is used by entrepreneurs as an inovative tool in online trade so that they can handle the problem of traceability of the product in the management of the supply chain. This research want to be a cross-border between blockchain, ecommerce all made in the entrepreneurial environement. In the end it will be a set of methods and algorithms that are developed for the information encryption and for anticounterfeiting. There will be presented algorithms and methods to show a complete and working solution, which are evaluated by applying to several typical problems and attack cases. The effectiveness, extendibility, security, implementation and governance issues of applying these algorithms,methods, solutions are also discussed. This research contributes to the theoretical and practical literatures on blockchain technology, cross-border e-commerce and supply chain management research fields.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Online trade, E-commerce, Blockchain technology
    JEL: L81 M41 F32
  11. By: Amelia Fletcher (Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: There is a growing international consensus that standard competition law is inadequate for addressing the panoply of competition problems arising in digital platform markets. Alongside a proposal for ex ante regulation in this arena, the European Commission is considering the introduction of a ‘New Competition Tool’ which is broadly modelled on the UK Market Investigation instrument. This paper abstracts from the specifics of the EU situation and considers the pros and cons of market investigations in the context of the UK regime. It concludes that the tool is a valuable addition to the standard competition law toolkit, and that this is likely to be true also at EU level, both for digital platforms and more widely. However, because the tool is potentially so powerful and flexible, it merits strong procedural checks and balances, to guard against confirmation bias or politicisation. The tool also has important limitations and thus should not be viewed as a full solution to the issues raised by digital platforms, but rather as a valuable complementary tool alongside new ex ante regulation. Interoperability is discussed as one example where the tools could valuably be used alongside each other
    Date: 2020–10–01
  12. By: M.Z. Yaqub (King Abdulaziz University); Marijana Sreckovic (TU Wien - Technische Universität Wien); Gérard Cliquet (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); G. Hendrikse (Erasmus University Rotterdam); J. Windsperger (Universität Wien)
    Abstract: In today's dynamic, complex and interconnected environments, interfirm networks in its various forms (e.g. franchising, retail and service chains, cooperatives, financial networks, joint ventures, strategic alliances, clusters, public-private partnerships, digital platforms) are becoming increasingly important in helping firms improve their competitive position through an enhanced access to innovation, complementary resources and capabilities otherwise not available to them. Driven by increased performance pressures in unpredictable environments, firms embedded in networks are increasingly moving from cooperators to collaborators as value co-creators. The aim of this introductory article is to discuss the role of innovation in business networks by focusing on two major topics: Network innovation versus innovation through networks. In addition, we provide an overview of the articles included in the special issue on Networks and Innovation focusing on the questions: (1) what is the impact of network characteristics on a firm's innovation?; and (2) what are the determinants of innovation in interfirm networks? © 2020 Elsevier Inc.
    Keywords: Innovation through networks,Network innovation,Networked firms,Theoretical perspectives on networks and innovation,Value co-creation,innovation through networks
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Klein, Daniel; Ludwig, Christopher A.; Nicolay, Katharina
    Abstract: Our study investigates firms' internal digitalizationas a crucial foundation for timely, data-driven decision making. We evaluate the association between digital infrastructure and improved decision making intax planning decisions to analyze if the benefits of digitalization expand beyond firms' core business functions. The novel use of a survey that identifies European firms' digital infrastructure over the period from 2005 to 2016 allows us to create an index of IT sophistication. Using this index, we extend prior approaches and observe the effectiveness of tax planning decisions in terms of a firm's ability to exploit income shifting incentives. Our empirical analysis confirms the prediction that digitalized firms respond more efficiently to income shifting incentives. Further, we provide evidence that firms with sophisticated IT are more reactive to shocks in the income shifting incentive than non-digital firms. Our results suggest that internal digitalization allows firms to efficiently monitor and manage internal processes and to strategically price internal transactions. With this work, we are the first to document the association of digitalization and the performance of firms' support functions.
    Keywords: Digital Transformation,Digitalization,Firm Performance,Decision Making,Multinational Corporations,Business Taxation,Information Technology,Profit Shifting
    JEL: O33 L25 H25 H26 K34
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Giorgio Fagiolo
    Abstract: In this paper, I study epidemic diffusion in a generalized spatial SEIRD model, where individuals are initially connected in a social or geographical network. As the virus spreads in the network, the structure of interactions between people may endogenously change over time, due to quarantining measures and/or spatial-distancing policies. I explore via simulations the dynamic properties of the co-evolutionary process dynamically linking disease diffusion and network properties. Results suggest that, in order to predict how epidemic phenomena evolve in networked populations, it is not enough to focus on the properties of initial interaction structures. Indeed, the co-evolution of network structures and compartment shares strongly shape the process of epidemic diffusion, especially in terms of its speed. Furthermore, I show that the timing and features of spatial-distancing policies may dramatically influence their effectiveness.
    Keywords: Corona Virus Disease; COVID-19; Diffusion Models on Networks; Spatial SEIRD Models.
    Date: 2020–10–22
  15. By: Voshmgir, Shermin; Zargham, Michael
    Abstract: Blockchain networks and similar cryptoeconomic networks are systems, specifically complex systems. They are adaptive networks with multiscale spatio-temporal dynamics. Individual actions may be incentivized towards a collective goal with “purpose-driven” tokens. Blockchain networks, for example, are equipped cryptoeconomic mechanisms that allow the decentralized network to simultaneously maintain a universal state layer, support peer-to-peer settlement, and incentivize collective action. These networks represent an institutional infrastructure upon which socioeconomic collaboration is facilitated – in the absence of intermediaries or traditional organizations. They provide a mission-critical and safety-critical regulatory infrastructure for autonomous agents in untrusted economic networks. Their tokens provide a rich, real-time data set reflecting all economic activities in their systems. Advances in network science and data science can thus be leveraged to design and analyze these economic systems in a manner consistent with the best practices of modern systems engineering. Research that reflects all aspects of these socioeconomic networks needs (i) a complex systems approach, (ii) interdisciplinary research, and (iii) a combination of economic and engineering methods, here referred to as “economic systems engineering,” for the regulation and control of these socioeconomic systems. This manuscript provides a conceptual framework synthesizing the research space and proceeds to outline specific research questions and methodologies for future research in this field, applying an inductive approach based on interdisciplinary literature review and relative contextualization of the works cited.
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Chipidza, Wallace; Yan, Jie
    Abstract: There is vigorous debate as to whether influential social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook should censor objectionable posts by government officials in the United States and elsewhere. Although these platforms have resisted pressure to censor such posts in the past, Twitter recently flagged five posts by the United States President Donald J. Trump on the rationale that the tweets contained inaccurate or inflammatory content. In this paper, we examine preliminary evidence as to whether these posts were retweeted less or more than expected. We employ 10 machine learning (ML) algorithms to estimate the expected number of retweets based on 8 features of each tweet from historical data since President Trump was elected: number of likes, word count, readability, polarity, subjectivity, presence of link or multimedia content, time of day of posting, and number of days since Trump’s election. Our results indicate agreement from all 10 ML algorithms that the three flagged tweets for which we had retweet data were retweeted at higher rates than expected. These results suggest that flagging tweets by government officials might be counterproductive towards the spread of content deemed objectionable by social media platforms.
    Date: 2020–07–04
  17. By: Pietro Bonaccorsi; Massimo Moggi
    Abstract: The Internet technology has radically transformed the computer and communication world, with revolutionary effects on economic and social systems at a global level. Its invention is the result of a collective research effort performed by computer scientists and telecommunications, electrical, software and computer engineers tied together in a sort of loosely coupled community, nurtured by US federal and military research programs. In this work we systematically recollect and reframe the contributions from the technological, business and economic history of the Internet into the interpretive framework provided by the evolutionary theories of technical change. More specifically, we show how the Internet as we know it is the outcome of the evolutionary processes followed by multiple technological innovations both in its transport infrastructure and in the applications grown out of it.
    Keywords: Internet history; Technological Paradigms; Technological Revolutions.
    Date: 2020–10–05
  18. By: Thanapauge Chamaratana (Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This article aims to examine the relationship in the social network of Thai student labourers or special migrants known as "Thai-Aus labourers", who are studying and working in Sydney, Australia. Methodology/Technique - Data was collected via in-depth interviews with 18 key Thai-Aus labourers in Sydney, Australia. These key informants were selected using the snowball technique. Content analysis was performed with the data based on the ATLAS.ti programme, and the social networks were analysed using the Ucinet and Netdraw programme. Finding - The results conclude that the relationships within the social networks of the Thai-Aus labourers were complex, although they each shared the same goal. The relationships were principally based on benefit exchange even though personal relationships appeared on the surface. Novelty - The directional flow in the pattern of benefit-giving and receiving, and the duration, did not affect relationships, which depended more on personal cases. Type of Paper – Empirical
    Keywords: Brokers; Social Network; Migrant Labour Network; Working Abroad of Thai Labourers.
    JEL: J21 J29
    Date: 2020–09–30
  19. By: Onetiu Daniel Darius (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, West University of Timisoara)
    Abstract: Today we face many diverse and fascinating challenges, but the most intense and important challenge is to understand and shape the new technological revolution, which involves the transformation of humanity. The Internet is one of the most used advertising channels used by advertisers. Assessing the degree to which each channel contributes to marketing success and the ways in which channels influence each other remains challenging. An increasingly important topic today are the issues that concern consumer behavior. Any company wants to grow in order to become more competitive on the market, to survive the daily challenges and of course to survive the act of economic contest, which is also in a continuous digitalization. The objectives of the present research paper are the following: the analysis of the indices regarding the age categories of the respondents and their sex, in order to determine the channels that suit each market segment; determining the affirmative answers to the indices that contribute to the mapping of the consumer process on the analyzed sample. This paper is structured in two parts: a theoretical basis and an empirical analysis.?This work was co-financed by the European Social Fund through the Human Operational Program Capital 2014-2020, project number POCU / 380/6/13/125015 ?Development of entrepreneurial skills for doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers in the field of economic sciences?
    Keywords: Social media, the buying process, digital transformation, consumer
    JEL: M31 M31 M37
  20. By: Saskia Seidel (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt [Berlin]); Corinne Blanquart (AME-SPLOTT - Systèmes Productifs, Logistique, Organisation des Transports et Travail - UNIV GUSTAVE EIFFEL - Université Gustave Eiffel)
    Abstract: E-commerce experienced strong growth in the last decades. Nowadays, there is hardly any product which cannot be purchased online. But as online sales are not successful for all types of articles, not all retail branches are affected in the same way by the development of e-commerce. Furthermore, depending on the type of purchased product different transport handling is required. Moreover we can find different developments of e-commerce in various countries. Even comparing neighbouring countries we can observe differences. The aim of the paper is, on a basis of a meta-study, a comparative study of the development of business-to-consumer e-commerce in France and Germany considering also consumer behaviour, online sellers as well as offered transport solutions. The results of the analysis regarding consumer behaviour revealed that home deliveries are the preferred option. Nevertheless we see that transport providers develop ideas to offer alternative delivery solutions, also pushed by online sellers who strongly participate in determine and shaping the offer of delivery services.
    Abstract: Le commerce électronique a connu une forte croissance au cours des dernières décennies. De nos jours, il n'y a pratiquement aucun produit qui ne puisse être acheté en ligne. Mais comme les ventes en ligne ne réussissent pas pour tous les types d'articles, toutes les succursales ne sont pas affectées de la même manière par le développement du commerce électronique. De plus, selon le type de produit acheté, différentes manipulations de transport sont nécessaires. En outre, nous pouvons trouver différents développements du commerce électronique dans différents pays. Même en comparant les pays voisins, nous pouvons observer des différences. L'objectif de cet article est, sur la base d'une méta-étude, une étude comparative du développement du commerce électronique entre entreprises et consommateurs en France et en Allemagne, en tenant compte du comportement des consommateurs, des vendeurs en ligne et des solutions de transport proposées. Les résultats de l'analyse concernant le comportement du consommateur ont révélé que les livraisons à domicile sont l'option préférée. Néanmoins, nous constatons que les fournisseurs de transport développent des idées pour offrir des solutions de livraison alternatives, également poussés par les vendeurs en ligne qui participent fortement à déterminer et à façonner l'offre de services de livraison.
    Keywords: e-commerce,final deliveries,drivers,France,Germany,commerce électronique,livraisons finales,principaux facteurs,Allemagne
    Date: 2020–10–12
  21. By: Okada, Keisuke; Samreth, Sovannroeun
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of political regimes on technology diffusion, using data from a sample of 104 technologies from 137 countries between 1901 and 2000. We find that democracy is positively associated with the diffusion of health and agriculture-related technologies. Furthermore, the diffusion of infrastructure, general, and other sector-specific technologies are not influenced by political regimes.
    Keywords: Technology diffusion; Democracy; Dictatorship
    JEL: O33 O40 P16
    Date: 2020–10–23
  22. By: Dertwinkel-Kalt, Markus (Frankfurt School of Finance and Management); Köster, Mats (Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf); Sutter, Matthias (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods)
    Abstract: We examine whether shrouding or partitioning of a surcharge raises demand in online shopping. In a field experiment with more than 34,000 consumers, we find that consumers in the online shop of a cinema are more likely to select tickets for a 3D movie when the 3D surcharge is shrouded, but they also drop out more often when the overall price is shown at the checkout. In sum, the demand distribution is independent of the price presentation. This result outlines the limits of the effectiveness of shrouding practices.
    Keywords: salience, inattention, shrouding, price partitioning, field experiment
    JEL: D81 C93
    Date: 2020–10

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.