nep-pay New Economics Papers
on Payment Systems and Financial Technology
Issue of 2018‒11‒12
thirty-one papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. Predicting digital asset market based on blockchain activity data By Zvezdin Besarabov; Todor Kolev
  2. A simple application for network stegonagraphy By Resul Da?; Gurkan Tuna
  3. Paying for Digital Information: Assessing Farmers Willingness to Pay for a Digital Agriculture and Nutrition Service in Ghana By Palloni, G.; Aker, J.; Gilligan, D.; Hidrobo, M.; Ledlie, N.
  4. Platform-mediated reputation systems in the sharing economy and incentives to provide service quality: the case of ridesharing services By Marcello Basili; Maria Alessandra Rossi
  5. Mobile application for diabetes follow-up and analysis By Gurkan Tuna; Resul Da?
  6. Broadband Internet and Social Capital By Geraci, Andrea; Nardotto, Mattia; Reggiani, Tommaso G.; Sabatini, Fabio
  7. Who Holds the Reins? – Banks in the Crossfire of Global Platforms By Mattila, Juri; Seppälä, Timo; Lähteenmäki, Ilkka
  8. "Monitoring Money for Price Stability" By Constantino Hevia; Juan Pablo Nicolini
  9. The Three-Legged Stool of Value of Copyrighted Music: Hertzian Radio, SiriusXM, and Spotify (The Working Paper Version – v2) By Marcel Boyer
  10. Ride with Me - Ethnic Discrimination, Social Markets and the Sharing Economy By Tjaden, Jasper; Schwemmer, Carsten; Khadjavi, Menusch
  11. Exploring the Driving Forces of the Bitcoin Exchange Rate Dynamics: An EGARCH Approach By Zhou, Siwen
  12. The Competitive Market Value of Copyright in Music: A Digital Gordian Knot (The Working Paper Version – v2) By Marcel Boyer
  13. The Case for Formation of ISP-Content Providers Consortiums by Nash Bargaining for Internet Content Delivery By Debasis Mitra; Abhinav Sridhar
  14. Digital Divide in India: A District Level Study By Atulan Guha
  15. The Rise of Cloud Computing: Minding Your P’s, Q’s and K’s By David Byrne; Carol Corrado; Daniel E. Sichel
  16. Entrepreneurship and social networks in Spain By Iñiguez, David; Ortega, Raquel; Rivero, Alejandro; Velilla, Jorge
  17. Global Cryptocurrency Benchmarking Study By Michel Rauchs; Garrick Hileman
  18. What drive the development of e-commerce in rural China--- the empirical evidence from the emergence of Taobao Villages By Liu, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, S.
  19. So Ugly! User Experience of LINE?s Ugly e-Stickers By Li-Chiou Chen
  20. Essays on the role and effects of advertising By He, Chen
  21. Le packaging dans le commerce électronique : une expérience consommateur à enrichir By François Fulconis; Bernd Philipp
  22. Pourquoi prendre le risque de la déviance ? Cas de comportements organisationnels face à une technologie Réseau By Audrey Morgand
  23. Designing wearables for use in the workplace: The role of solution developers By Evers, Maren; Krzywdzinski, Martin; Pfeiffer, Sabine
  24. Distributed Ledger Technology Systems. A Conceptual Framework By Michel Rauchs; Andrew Glidden; Brian Gordon; Gina Pieters; Martino Recanatini; Francois Rostand; Kathryn Vagneur; Bryan Zhang
  25. Cross-border or Online -- Tax Competition with Mobile Consumers under Destination and Origin Principle By Birg, Laura
  26. Innovation in Global Value Chains By Lema, Rasmus; Pietrobelli, Carlo; Rabellotti, Roberta
  27. Considerations for and Lessons Learned from Online, Synchronous Focus Groups By Sarah G. Forrestal; Angela Valdovinos D'Angelo; Lisa Klein Vogel
  28. Banks are not intermediaries of loanable funds — facts, theory and evidence By Jakab, Zoltan; Kumhof, Michael
  29. Die Digitalisierung der Außenwerbung: Eine empirische Untersuchung der innermenschlichen Wahrnehmungsprozesse am Beispiel digitaler City-Light-Poster (DCLP) By Gillessen, Michelle; Khabyuk, Olexiy
  30. Politics in the Facebook Era Evidence from the 2016 US Presidential Elections By Liberini, Federica; Redoano, Michela; Russo, Antonio; Cuevas, Angel; Cuevas, Ruben
  31. Politics in the Facebook Era Evidence from the 2016 US Presidential Elections By Liberini, Federica; Redoano, Michela; Russo, Antonio; Cuevas, Angel; Cuevas, Ruben

  1. By: Zvezdin Besarabov; Todor Kolev
    Abstract: Blockchain technology shows significant results and huge potential for serving as an interweaving fabric that goes through every industry and market, allowing decentralized and secure value exchange, thus connecting our civilization like never before. The standard approach for asset value predictions is based on market analysis with an LSTM neural network. Blockchain technologies, however, give us access to vast amounts of public data, such as the executed transactions and the account balance distribution. We explore whether analyzing this data with modern Deep Leaning techniques results in higher accuracies than the standard approach. During a series of experiments on the Ethereum blockchain, we achieved $4$ times error reduction with blockchain data than an LSTM approach with trade volume data. By utilizing blockchain account distribution histograms, spatial dataset modeling, and a Convolutional architecture, the error was reduced further by 26\%. The proposed methodologies are implemented in an open source cryptocurrency prediction framework, allowing them to be used in other analysis contexts.
    Date: 2018–10
  2. By: Resul Da? (F?rat University); Gurkan Tuna (Trakya University)
    Abstract: The Internet has changed the paradigm of traditional circuit switch network largely. The services and applications have been created by the network users themselves. This paradigm shift is one of the main sources of the tremendous success of the Internet. On the other hand, although the Internet has created many new possibilities and opportunities, communication through the Internet is subject to many security risks. In this paper, we propose a simple application to transfer sensitive data securely and present its details. The application we propose secures the exchange of sensitive data by relying on network steganography. When the users input data at the application?s interface, the data is hidden in IP packets before transmission so that it cannot be obtained by malicious users. Since the required libraries are more stable and can be easily found on the Linux platform, the application was developed for the Linux platform.
    Keywords: Sensitive data, Data confidentiality, Steganography, Application.
    JEL: L86 C88
    Date: 2018–07
  3. By: Palloni, G.; Aker, J.; Gilligan, D.; Hidrobo, M.; Ledlie, N.
    Abstract: With the widespread growth of mobile phone coverage and adoption over the past decade, there has been considerable enthusiasm over the use the ICTs in agricultural initiatives, primarily to disseminate information to farmers. This paper assesses farmers willingness to pay (WTP) for a newly introduced digital nutrition-sensitive agricultural information service in Ghana, called Vodafone Farmers Club (VFC). Using both an experimental game and administrative data, we find that the share of farmers willing-to-pay for VFC service is high at low prices and then decreases rapidly as the price increases; at 1.0 GHC, 85% would register for the service; at 2.0 GHC 50% would register; and at 3.0 GHC, just 19% would still be willing to participate. We experimentally vary both the framing around the introduction of VFC to emphasize either the platform s nutrition and agriculture information or the agriculture information alone and the gender of the household member invited to play the game and find that women have statistically lower WTP than men, but the framing has no impact on WTP. Acknowledgement : We would like to thank all individuals in Upper West and Central Region who agreed to take part in this research. We are particularly grateful to Lucy Billing for managing the project in Ghana, and to the ISSER team in Ghana, led by Simon Bawakyillenuo and Felix Asante. We would also like to extend our gratitude to Groupe Sp ciale Mobile Association (GSMA), Esoko, Vodafone Ghana, and Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) teams for their cooperation and support. We are also extremely grateful for the ongoing collaborative partnership with The Institute of Development Studies (IDS) and the GAMOS team.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Marcello Basili; Maria Alessandra Rossi
    Abstract: Sharing economy platforms often use reputation systems to actively perform a ‘regulatory’/control role, by excluding from access to the platform users with ratings below a given threshold. We provide a multiple case study analysis of 9 platforms and investigate through a simple inter-temporal choice model the effect of the design of this specific application of online rating systems on users/providers’ incentives to ensure a high level of service quality. Compliance with the platform’s behavioural rules is imperfect even with perfect reviews and even if riders cannot switch across platforms. It can be increased by linking remuneration to performance and by increasing the opportunity cost of reintegrating the endowment of reputation, also by influencing providers’ perception of the magnitude of this cost. Thus, there may be an efficiency rationale for the controversial choice to willingly preserve riders’ uncertainty as to the operation of the algorithm and for portability of reputation.
    Keywords: sharing economy, shared mobility, reputation systems, ridesourcing, incentives, service quality, self-regulation.
    JEL: D20 L59 L81 M52
    Date: 2018–10
  5. By: Gurkan Tuna (Trakya University); Resul Da? (F?rat University)
    Abstract: It is very difficult for people with diabetes, one of the most common diseases of recent years, to follow factors that affect their disease. With the development of technology, patients have become able to measure their own blood sugar using tiny devices whenever they want, wherever they want, instead of going to hospitals to measure blood sugar. Considering that nowadays when smartphones are so widespread, diabetes can be easily followed using a mobile application. In this paper, design and development of a mobile application that allows a patient to save his/her diabetes related parameters at certain intervals and transmit the values to his/her doctor is explained. Since potential users of the designed application are Turkish people, the interfaces of the software application are in Turkish. The user interface in English is currently being developed.
    Keywords: Diabetes, Follow-up, Analysis, Software, Mobile Application, Android.
    JEL: C88 L86
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Geraci, Andrea (University of Oxford); Nardotto, Mattia (KU Leuven); Reggiani, Tommaso G. (Masaryk University); Sabatini, Fabio (Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: We study how the diffusion of broadband Internet affects social capital using two data sets from the UK. Our empirical strategy exploits the fact that broadband access has long depended on customers' position in the voice telecommunication infrastructure that was designed in the 1930s. The actual speed of an Internet connection, in fact, rapidly decays with the distance of the dwelling from the specific node of the network serving its area. Merging unique information about the topology of the voice network with geocoded longitudinal data about individual social capital, we show that access to broadband Internet caused a significant decline in forms of offline interaction and civic engagement. Overall, our results suggest that broadband penetration substantially crowded out several aspects of social capital.
    Keywords: ICT, broadband infrastructure, networks, Internet, social capital, civic capital
    JEL: C91 D9 D91 Z1
    Date: 2018–09
  7. By: Mattila, Juri; Seppälä, Timo; Lähteenmäki, Ilkka
    Abstract: Abstract Banking and financial services have traditionally been a heavily regulated industry where technology alone has not been a sufficient factor to transform the operating architectures of the industry. The pervasive view in the financial industry has been that digitalization and its integrational development will take place on the platforms of the banks. Due to the inherent secondary nature of financial services, however, it is more likely that the customer interface of financial services will increasingly migrate towards primary service platforms. As a result, the commoditization of payment processing services is expected to increase. Additionally, the visibility into customer data will become more opaque and the value capturing capabilities of the financial industry will be radically redefined. Furthermore, a strategic impact can also be anticipated on several public institutions, such as financial supervisory authorities, the tax administration and other public registry holders.
    Keywords: Platform: embedded banking, Distributed banking, Open banking, Platform, Distributed ledgers, Blockchain, FinTech
    JEL: G2 L2 L22
    Date: 2018–11–02
  8. By: Constantino Hevia; Juan Pablo Nicolini
    Abstract: In this paper, we use a simple model of money demand to characterize the behavior of monetary aggregates in the United States from 1960 to 2016. We argue that the demand for the currency component of the monetary base has been remarkably stable during this period. We use the model to make projections of the nominal quantity of cash in circulation under alternative future paths for the federal funds rate. Our calculations suggest that if the federal funds rate is lifted up as suggested by the survey of economic projections made by the members of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the fall in total currency demanded in the next two years ranges between 50 and 200 billion. Our discussion suggests that specific measures by the Federal Reserve to absorb that cash could be worth considering to make the future path of the price level consistent with the price stability mandate.
    Keywords: Inflation, Money Demand, Currency in Circulation
    JEL: E31 E41 E51
    Date: 2017–12
  9. By: Marcel Boyer
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets has always been a difficult task given the information good character of such works. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. This paper proposes an approach to infer the competitive market value of copyrights in music from choices made by users namely the operators of Hertzian radio (HR), satellite radio (SiriusXM), and interactive music streaming services (Spotify). The inferred competitive values, which are obtained independently, fall in the same ballpark, although they need not be equal or even close as business models and cost structures differ significantly between those music delivery technologies. Nevertheless the estimated competitive market values of music copyrights clearly indicate that rightsholders are significantly shortchanged and poorly served by the current copyright pricing framework. Appendix A presents the data from which one can infer the value of music in HR. Appendix B presents an overview of the debate before the Copyright Board of Canada following the presentation of the model from which the value of music in HR can be inferred. La tarification des œuvres ou actifs protégées par le droit d'auteur a toujours été une tâche difficile étant donné le caractère ‘biens d’information’ de ces œuvres. Le faire à l'ère du numérique est encore plus difficile. Ce cahier propose d’inférer la valeur de marché à partir du comportement et des choix des utilisateurs, principalement les opérateurs de radio Hertzienne, de radio par satellite (SiriusXM) et de services de musique en ligne (Spotify). Les valeurs ainsi inférées séparément sont de niveaux comparables bien qu’il ne soit pas nécessaire qu’il en soit ainsi étant donné les différences importantes entre leurs modèles d’affaire et leurs structures de coûts. Les valeurs estimées montrent clairement que les ayants-droits sont significativement sous-compensés et donc mal servis par le système actuel de tarification des droits d’auteur. Deux appendices sur les données et le modèle utilisés pour inférer la valeur de la musique dans la radio commerciale au Canada complètent le cahier.
    Keywords: Copyright,Royalty rates,Hertzian radio,Satellite radio,SiriusXM,Online Music Services,Spotify, Droits d'auteur,Royautés,Radio Hertzienne,SiriusXM,Services de musique en ligne,Spotify
    JEL: H41 L38 L51 O34
    Date: 2018–10–12
  10. By: Tjaden, Jasper; Schwemmer, Carsten; Khadjavi, Menusch
    Abstract: We study ethnic discrimination in the sharing economy using the example of Europe’s largest carpooling marketplace. Based on a unique dataset with more than 17,000 rides, we estimate the effects of drivers’ perceived name origins on the demand for rides. The results show sizable ethnic penalties. Further analyses suggest that additional information about actors in this market decreases the magnitude of ethnic discrimination. Our findings broaden the perspective of ethnic discrimination by shedding light on subtle, everyday forms of discrimination in social markets and informing ongoing discussions about ways to address discrimination in an era in which markets increasingly move online.
    Keywords: Ethnic discrimination,sharing economy,statistical discrimination,online markets,computational social science
    Date: 2018
  11. By: Zhou, Siwen
    Abstract: Bitcoin is a virtual currency scheme that is characterised by a decentralised network and cryptographic transfer verification which has been attracting much public attention due to its technological innovation and its high exchange rate volatility. In this paper, Bitcoin’s exchange rate movement from 2011 to 2018 and its relationship with the global financial markets are explored using an EGARCH framework. The results are as follows. First, fundamentals and Bitcoin-related events play a critical role in the exchange rate formation of Bitcoin. Second, the impact of regulation-related events on Bitcoin indicates that market sentiment is responding to market regulation statements. Third, news coverage is an essential factor in driving the volatility of Bitcoin. Fourth, Bitcoin may be a hedge in times of calm financial markets and a safe haven against uncertain economic policy but is likely to expose to flight-to-quality as global financial uncertainty increases. Lastly, the positive effect of the central bank’s announcements on Bitcoin is marginal enough to rule out the involvement of global expansionary monetary policy in inflating Bitcoin’s exchange rate over the past years, as it may have been the case with traditional asset prices after the great recession.
    Keywords: Bitcoin, EGARCH, event analysis, Reuters news, VIX, EPU, financial markets
    JEL: C22 C52 E52 F31 G12
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Marcel Boyer
    Abstract: Pricing copyrighted works or assets so that creators are competitively compensated has always been a difficult task given the information good character of such works. Doing it in the digital era is even more challenging. I consider Hertzian radio, satellite radio, and interactive music streaming services and I argue that annual competitive royalties in Hertzian radio should be increased from $100 million to $450 million. I further argue that this gap should not be filled by primary users alone but by a broader set of beneficiaries, including the general public and their government. La tarification des œuvres protégées par le droit d'auteur assurant aux créateurs une rémunération concurrentielle a toujours été une tâche difficile étant donné le caractère biens d’information de ces œuvres. Le faire à l'ère du numérique est encore plus difficile. Je considère la radio hertzienne, la radio par satellite, et les services de musique interactive et je prétends que les royautés dans la radio hertzienne devraient être augmentées de $100 à $450 million. Je prétends en outre que cet écart devrait être comblé non pas uniquement par les utilisateurs primaires, mais par un ensemble plus large de bénéficiaires, y compris le grand public et leur gouvernement.
    Keywords: Copyrights,Hertzian radio,SiriusXM,Music streaming services,Pandora,Spotify, Droits d'auteur,radio hertzienne,SiriusXM,services de musique en ligne,Pandora,Spotify
    JEL: D23 L38 O34 Z11
    Date: 2018–10–12
  13. By: Debasis Mitra; Abhinav Sridhar
    Abstract: The formation of consortiums of a broadband access Internet Service Provider (ISP) and multiple Content Providers (CP) is considered for large-scale content caching. The consortium members share costs from operations and investments in the supporting infrastructure. Correspondingly, the model's cost function includes marginal and fixed costs; the latter has been important in determining industry structure. Also, if Net Neutrality regulations permit, additional network capacity on the ISP's last mile may be contracted by the CPs. The number of subscribers is determined by a combination of users' price elasticity of demand and Quality of Experience. The profit generated by a coalition after pricing and design optimization determines the game's characteristic function. Coalition formation is by a bargaining procedure due to Okada (1996) based on random proposers in a non-cooperative, multi-player game-theoretic framework. A necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for the Grand Coalition to form, which bounds subsidies from large to small contributors. Caching is generally supported even under Net Neutrality regulations. The Grand Coalition's profit matches upper bounds. Numerical results illustrate the analytic results.
    Date: 2018–10
  14. By: Atulan Guha (Indian Institute of Management Kashipur)
    Abstract: Despite very rapid increase in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in India, there is a substantive level of inequality in use of digital technology exists in India. We have estimated the extent of digital inequality across the rural-urban divide, across the economic classes and across the political-geographic regions in the form of States and districts. Further, we have estimated the demand equation for ICT instrument for the household aggregated at the district level. In the process of estimating this equation, we have tried to identify the reasons for this inequality by analysing household characteristics. The estimation of the demand equation has been done by using the population census data of 2011. We found inequality of economic conditions of household, education, occupation profile, social disadvantage in the form of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe are the prime reason for this digital divide.
    Keywords: Digital-Divide, India, Inequality
    JEL: O33 O53 O15
    Date: 2018–07
  15. By: David Byrne; Carol Corrado; Daniel E. Sichel
    Abstract: Cloud computing—computing done on an off-site network of resources accessed through the Internet—is revolutionizing how computing services are used. However, because cloud is so new and it largely is an intermediate input to other industries, it is difficult to track in the U.S. statistical system. Moreover, there is a paucity of systematic information on the prices of cloud services. To begin filling this gap, this paper does three things. First, we define the different segments of cloud computing and document its explosive expansion. Second, we develop new hedonic prices indexes for cloud services based on quarterly data for compute, database, and storage services offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS) from 2009 to 2016. These indexes fall rapidly over the sample period, with quickening (and double digit) rates of decline for all three products starting at the beginning of 2014. Finally, we highlight the puzzle of why investment in IT equipment in the NIPAs has been so weak while capital expenditures have exploded for IT equipment associated with cloud infrastructure. We suggest that cloud service providers are undertaking large amounts of own-account investment in IT equipment and that some of this investment may not be captured in GDP.
    JEL: E01 E22 E31 L16 O3 O4
    Date: 2018–10
  16. By: Iñiguez, David; Ortega, Raquel; Rivero, Alejandro; Velilla, Jorge
    Abstract: The objective of the work is to know the behavior of new Spanish companies in social networks and the use they make of them, trying to establish relationships between the type of company and its behavior in the digital world. We obtain information on the almost 30,000 companies constituted between October 1, 2016 and September 30, 2017 from the Official Bulletin of the Mercantile Registry (BORME), using the classification of economic activities CNAE when defining the type of company. The newly created companies show interest in visualizing themselves in social networks, 36% in Facebook, 23% in LinkedIn and 15% in Twitter, detecting also activity in Instagram and YouTube for some particular niches, being the commercial activity (Group C of CNAE) the predominant in the presence of new Spanish companies in social networks.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, New Companies, Social Networks, Spain, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Michel Rauchs (University of Cambridge); Garrick Hileman (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: This is the first study to systematically investigate key cryptocurrency industry sectors by collecting empirical, non-public data. The study gathered survey data from nearly 150 cryptocurrency companies and individuals, and it covers 38 countries from five world regions. The study details the key industry sectors that have emerged and the different entities that inhabit them.
    Keywords: Alternative finance
    Date: 2017–04
  18. By: Liu, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, S.
    Abstract: Rural e-commerce has developed rapidly in China, but it has presented big regional differences. This paper aims to empirically examine what determines the development of rural e-commerce in China. It is further hoped to contribute to reduce the gap of regional differences in e-commerce development and prompt the e-commerce development in underdeveloped areas. The emerging and rapid growth of Taobao Villages is a typical example of rural e-commerce development. We therefore focus on exploring the major driving forces of emerging Taobao Villages in China. The data used in this study are generated through Geography Information System with location of each Taobao Village and data mining with web crawler, which includes the data for a total sample of 2018 Taobao Villages over 2013-2017. The random-effect probit and bivariate probit models with robust standard errors and clustering standard errors are estimated. The results show that the economic condition of a village and its surrounding areas and the distances to national way and highway impact the development of rural e-commerce at different extents. The area with developed e-commerce promotes rural e-commerce development of the nearby areas, which reflects there are spillover effects on developing rural e-commerce. The paper concludes with several policy implications. Acknowledgement : Funding for this research was supported by a grant from the Asian Development Bank (2017X127.CCA). The authors would like to thank the colleagues who helped to collect data. They are Dr. Shi Shu, Yueying Bai, Xiya Zhao, Yaqi Hu and Yuling Li. We are also grateful to Dr. Hongdong Guo, Dr. Qihui Chen, Dr. Shi Min and Jiaqi Qi for their useful suggestions to improve the quality of this paper.
    Keywords: Research and Development/ Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2018–07
  19. By: Li-Chiou Chen (Yuan Ze University)
    Abstract: LINE is the most popular and frequently used communication software in Taiwan, and its e-sticker function is a user favorite. In early 2016, a trend of ?ugly e-stickers? suddenly developed on LINE and the Internet. These e-stickers are drawn in the style of children?s graffiti, consisting of simple lines, and present a ?childlike? appearance without any particular design. This particular form resulted in a new style of e-sticker. This kind of e-sticker is different from the commonly pleasing impression of e-stickers and even reaches the point of being considered ?ugly? in traditional visual perception. It has also overturned the idea of ?needing a skillset to submit e-stickers.? To understand this particular phenomenon, this study explored user experience and conducted a questionnaire survey based on the Technology Acceptance Model to understand the users? experience in using ugly e-stickers and explore their motivation and intention behind using ugly e-stickers. The study found that ugly e-stickers are more popular among young and outgoing users, as well as those who frequently use communication software. Factors that affect the attitude of users toward using ugly e-stickers include the general view of ugly e-stickers and whether these e-stickers are user-friendly and practical. Comments made by others about ugly e-stickers and the popularity of such e-stickers are factors that affect the motivations of users to use e-stickers.
    Keywords: LINE, ugly e-stickers, user experience, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
    JEL: Z00
    Date: 2018–07
  20. By: He, Chen (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: The Ph.D. dissertation consists of three essays on the role and effects of advertising. Chapter 2, “Optimizing Online Sales using Targeted Advertising”, studies how reallocating advertising budgets can increase online sales. Chapter 3, “Advertising as a Reminder: Evidence from the Dutch State Lottery”, studies the dynamic effects of advertising. The central idea is that advertisements can also remind consumers to buy. Chapter 4, “Advertising Match Values and Viewership Demand”, characterizes the heterogeneous responses of consumers to the advertisement and show how the broadcaster could improve its profit by re-ordering different types of advertisements.
    Date: 2018
  21. By: François Fulconis (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université, LBNC - Laboratoire Biens, Normes, Contrats - UAPV - Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Bernd Philipp (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université, AMU - Aix Marseille Université, Ecole Supérieure du Commerce Extérieur - ESCE - International business school)
    Abstract: Pour de nombreuses entreprises dont l'activité est directement ou indirectement liée au secteur du packaging (fournisseurs de matériaux d'emballages, fabricants d'emballages, industriels, prestataires de services logistiques, e-commerçants, etc.), le commerce électronique apparaît comme un formidable vecteur de croissance, d'innovation et de compétitivité. En effet, les achats sur Internet de produits de grande consommation ne cessent de croître et, depuis seulement quelques années, le nombre de colis expédiés suit une évolution exponentielle. Face à ce phénomène inédit, qu'en est-il des niveaux traditionnels d'emballages (primaires, secondaires et tertiaires) et de leurs rôles et fonctions respectifs (techniques, logistiques, marketing, de service et d'usage) ? Une nouvelle conception du packaging n'est-elle pas à inventer pour enrichir l'expérience du consommateur internaute, en particulier en renforçant sa valeur perçue du produit sur le plan visuel, sensoriel ou informatif ? À l'aide d'un cadre théorique spécifique et d'une étude empirique exploratoire, cette communication présente les premiers éléments de réponse apportés à ces questions d'actualité.
    Keywords: Chaîne logistique,Consommateur internaute,Commerce électronique (e-commerce),Packaging (emballages),Marketing,Livraisons
    Date: 2018–06–07
  22. By: Audrey Morgand (Ecole Supérieure de Commerce d'Amiens, CRIISEA - Centre de Recherche sur l'Industrie, les Institutions et les Systèmes Economiques d'Amiens - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne)
    Abstract: This article proposes a qualitative analysis of organizational behaviours towards the expected uses of an Employability-oriented network technology. The study of three cases, on the basis of semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations aims to answer the following problem: Why do some actors take the risk of deviance? In fact, individuals adopt the behaviours expected by the designers and initiators of technology: they make their practices visible, they share their resources and coordinate their activities. However, others adopt a behaviour differ from the rule: they multiply the interaction tools. The action becomes opaque. To understand this phenomenon, the article mobilizes the theoretical framework of social regulation (Reynaud) and innovation (Alter). This framework is particularly relevant to understanding behaviours which are out of step with the prescription. These organizational behaviours represent a risk because they lead to uncertainty. Practices are unpredictable and illegible. The cooperative process needs change. These deviant behaviours are not motivated by a desire of opposition against the Network technology. It is a question of structuring collective action differently. The objective of this deviance is to transform and protect cooperation within the network of relationships, transformation and protection not provided in the Digital Social Network.
    Abstract: Cet article propose une analyse qualitative des comportements organisationnels face aux usages attendus d'une technologie Réseau orientée employabilité. L'étude de trois cas à partir d'entretiens et d'observations non-participantes vise à répondre à la pro-blématique suivante : Pourquoi certains acteurs prennent le risque de la déviance ? En effet, des individus adoptent les comportements attendus par les concepteurs et initia-teurs de la technologie : ils rendent visibles leurs pratiques, partagent leurs ressources et coordonnent leurs activités. D'autres, au contraire adoptent un comportement en dé-calage de la règle : ils multiplient les outils d'interaction rendant ainsi l'action opaque. Pour comprendre ce phénomène, l'article mobilise le cadre théorique de la régulation sociale (Reynaud) et de l'innovation (Alter). Ce cadre est particulièrement pertinent pour comprendre les comportements en décalage de la prescription. En effet, ces com-portements organisationnels sont teintés de risques car ils entraînent une incertitude face aux pratiques et suppose de modifier le processus coopératif. Ces comportements déviants ne sont pas motivés par un désir d'opposition à la technologie Réseau mais par la volonté de structurer différemment l'action collective. Cette déviance a pour objectif de transformer et protéger la coopération au sein du réseau de relations, transformation et protection non prévues dans la conception du Réseau Social Numérique (RSN).
    Keywords: network technology,cooperation,deviance,risque,réseau,innovation,risk
    Date: 2018–06–01
  23. By: Evers, Maren; Krzywdzinski, Martin; Pfeiffer, Sabine
    Abstract: Wearables (such as data glasses and smartwatches) are a particularly visible element of Industrie 4.0 applications. They aim at providing situation-specific information to workers, but at the same time they can also be used for surveillance and control because they generate data on the work process and sometimes even on movement patterns and vital data of the employees. Wearables technology is at an early stage of development, in which the interests and perspectives of relevant stakeholders, especially technology developers and the management, are of particular importance. This article explores the role of solution developers and their understanding of work processes in which wearables are to be used. It is based on expert interviews with solution developers, academic and company experts. The analysis shows an ambivalent understanding of work: On the one hand, it is characterized by the perception of workers as potential sources of error. It focuses on the optimization of individual workplaces and their ergonomics, while broader questions of work design and work organization are ignored. On the other hand, the technology developers see and discuss the potentials and dangers of wearables technologies with regard to individualization, data protection and control in a differentiated manner.
    Keywords: industrie 4.0,technology,developers,labor process,optimization,Industrie 4.0,Technologie,Technologieentwicklung,Arbeitsprozess,Optimierung
    JEL: J53 M54 O33
    Date: 2018
  24. By: Michel Rauchs (University of Cambridge); Andrew Glidden (University of California, Berkeley); Brian Gordon (University of Utah); Gina Pieters (University of Chicago); Martino Recanatini (University of Cambridge); Francois Rostand (University of Cambridge); Kathryn Vagneur (University of Cambridge); Bryan Zhang (University of Cambridge)
    Abstract: The DLT ecosystem is plagued with the use of incomplete and inconsistent definitions and a lack of standardised terminology, creating a needlessly complicated landscape for everyone from experienced policymakers and developers to individuals venturing into the field for the first time. This study sets out to contribute to international discussions to create a shared, common language around DLT systems to clarify terminology and concepts.
    Keywords: Alternative finance
    Date: 2018–08
  25. By: Birg, Laura
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of an online retailer on spatial tax competition with mobile consumers. If taxation for online purchases follows the destination principle, in many cases, the entry of the online retailer mitigates tax competition. If taxation for online purchases follows the origin principle, the entry of the online retailer typically enhances tax competition. Cooperation between government reverses this effect. For sufficiently low (high) online shopping costs, welfare in the online retailer’s home country is higher under the origin (destination) principle, while welfare in the other country is higher under the destination (origin) principle. Global welfare is higher under the destination principle.
    Keywords: tax competition,cross-border shopping,online retailer,destination principle,origin principle
    JEL: F12 H20 L13
    Date: 2018
  26. By: Lema, Rasmus (Aalborg University); Pietrobelli, Carlo (UNU-MERIT, and University Roma Tre); Rabellotti, Roberta (University of Pavia, and Aalborg University)
    Abstract: Developing countries are faced with significant challenges related to building and deepening their innovation capabilities. In this chapter, we focus on innovation in global value chains and on the role that such chains play in building and deepening capability. We also focus on the trajectories along which firms, once inserted into global value chains and located in developing countries, acquire or lose innovation capability. To do so, we bring together the global value chains and innovation systems approaches. Our key arguments are that global value chains interact with innovation systems in multiple ways and that these interactions have important implications for the speed, depth, and overall quality of capability building in developing-country firms. We outline five innovation capability trajectories and show how capability building at the firm level interrelates with the various ways in which global value chains and innovation systems co-evolve.
    Keywords: global value chains, innovation systems, technological capabilities, innovation policy, co-evolution
    JEL: F23 D23 L22 L25 O10 O32 O38
    Date: 2018–10–24
  27. By: Sarah G. Forrestal; Angela Valdovinos D'Angelo; Lisa Klein Vogel
    Abstract: This paper draws from our experiences on two recent studies to describe considerations for using online, synchronous focus groups instead of in-person focus groups. The paper also describes lessons learned from implementing online focus groups.
    Keywords: online focus group, synchronous focus group, qualitative methods, technology, best practices
  28. By: Jakab, Zoltan (International Monetary Fund); Kumhof, Michael (Bank of England)
    Abstract: In the loanable funds model that dominates the literature, banks are nonfinancial warehouses that receive physical commodity deposits from savers before lending the commodities to borrowers. In the financing model of this paper, banks are financial institutions whose loans create ledger-entry deposits that are essential in commodities exchange among nonbanks. This model predicts larger and faster changes in bank lending and greater real effects of financial shocks. Aggregate bank balance sheets exhibit very high volatility, as predicted by financing models. Alternative explanations of volatility in physical savings, net securities purchases or asset valuations have very little support in the data.
    Keywords: Banks; financial intermediation; loanable funds; money creation; bank lending; bank financing; money demand
    JEL: E41 E44 E51 G21
    Date: 2018–10–26
  29. By: Gillessen, Michelle (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences); Khabyuk, Olexiy (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Die Digitalisierung der Außenwerbung und damit einhergehende inkrementelle Veränderungen dieses Werbemediums – wie programmatische Aussteuerung, Individualisierungen der Botschaften oder etwaige Interaktionen – beeinflussen zunehmend die Marktakteure. Doch gerade für solche neuartigen Entwicklungen fehlt es an soliden empirischen Daten zur Werbewirkungs- und Wahrnehmungsforschung. Um die Bedeutsamkeit der o.g. Veränderungen etwas stärker zu stützen, erfolgt eine empirische Untersuchung der Wahrnehmung der digitalen Außenwerbeformen anhand eines Split-Ballot-Experiments. Dabei wurden drei Versuchsgruppen mit jeweils differenzierten Außenwerbestimuli konfrontiert und ihre Eindrücke anschließend einem Vergleich unterzogen. Durch die Interpretation der Ergebnisse konnten exemplarisch Handlungsempfehlungen für die Werbevermarkter und Werbetreibende formuliert werden.
    Abstract: The Digitalisation of the Out of Home advertising market and the incremental changes which are going along with this, like programmatic payouts, individualization of the messages or possible interactions, are affecting the market players. But especially within this type of niche, there is missing solid empirical data in regard of advertising and perception research. To state the significance and changes it causes, this paper includes an empiric survey by means of a split-ballot-experiment. By defining three experimental groups showing each a different type of advertising stimuli but the same questionnaire, comparable data will be gained. Based on the results, which are shown and interpreted at the end, it is possible to declare recommendations for actions within the Out of Home advertising market.
    Keywords: Außenwerbung, Empirie, Kommunikation, Wahrnehmung, Communications, Digitization, Empirical Survey, Out-of-home, Perception
    JEL: M3
  30. By: Liberini, Federica (ETH Zurich, Department of Economics); Redoano, Michela (University of Warwick, Department of Economics); Russo, Antonio (ETH Zurich,Department of Economics); Cuevas, Angel (University Carlos III, Department of Telematic Engeneering); Cuevas, Ruben (University Carlos III, Department of Telematic Engeneering)
    Abstract: Social media enable politicians to personalize their campaigns and target voters who may be decisive for the outcome of elections. We assess the effects of such political "micro-targeting" by exploiting variation in daily advertising prices on Facebook, collected during the course of the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. We analyze the variation of prices across political ideologies and propose a measure for the intensity of online political campaigns. Combining this measure with information from the ANES electoral survey, we address two fundamental questions: (i) To what extent did political campaigns use social media to micro-target voters? (ii) How large was the effect, if any, on voters who were heavily exposed to campaigning on social media? We find that online political campaigns targeted on users' gender, geographic location, and political ideology had a signi cant e ect in persuading undecided voters to support Mr Trump, and in persuading Republican supporters to turn out on polling day. Moreover the effect of micro-targeting on Facebook was strongest among users without university or college-level education.
    Date: 2018
  31. By: Liberini, Federica (ETH Zurich, Department of Economics); Redoano, Michela (University of Warwick); Russo, Antonio (ETH Zurich, Department of Economics); Cuevas, Angel (University Carlos III, Department of Telematic Engeneering); Cuevas, Ruben (University Carlos III, Department of Telematic Engeneering)
    Abstract: Social media enable politicians to personalize their campaigns and target voters who may be decisive for the outcome of elections. We assess the effects of such political “micro-targeting” by exploiting variation in daily advertising prices on Facebook, collected during the course of the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. We analyze the variation of prices across political ideologies and propose a measure for the intensity of online political campaigns. Combining this measure with information from the ANES electoral survey, we address two fundamental questions: (i) To what extent did political campaigns use social media to micro-target voters? (ii) How large was the effect, if any, on voters who were heavily exposed to campaigning on social media? We find that online political campaigns targeted on users’ gender, geographic location, and political ideology had a significant effect in persuading undecided voters to support Mr Trump, and in persuading Republican supporters to turn out on polling day. Moreover the effect of micro-targeting on Facebook was strongest among users without university or college-level education.Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2018

This nep-pay issue is ©2018 by Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.