nep-pay New Economics Papers
on Payment Systems and Financial Technology
Issue of 2017‒05‒07
thirteen papers chosen by
Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo
Bangor University

  1. Digital and Competing Information Sources: Impact on Environmental Concern and Prospects for Cooperation By Udalov, Vladimir; Welfens, Paul J. J.
  2. Completing web surveys on mobile devices: does screen size affect data quality? By Wenz, Alexander
  3. Digital Knowledge Generation and the Appropriability Trade-Off. By Antonelli, Cristiano
  4. Regional Innovation Systems and Global Flows of Knowledge By Martin, Roman; Wiig Aslesen, Heidi; Grillitsch, Markus; Herstad, Sverre
  5. A data model inference algorithm for schemaless process modeling By Rieger, Christoph
  6. Text as Data By Matthew Gentzkow; Bryan T. Kelly; Matt Taddy
  7. Challenges of data management and analytics in omni-channel CRM By Trautmann, Heike; Vossen, Gottfried; Homann, Leschek; Carnein, Matthias; Kraume, Karsten
  8. High-Frequency Jump Analysis of the Bitcoin Market By Olivier Scaillet; Adrien Treccani; Christopher Trevisan
  9. E-participation – a Key Factor in Developing Smart Cities By Vrabie, Catalin I.; Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
  10. Ethnic Discrimination on an Online Marketplace of Vacation Rental By Morgane Laouénan; Roland Rathelot
  11. Smart Fitness: Ökonomische Effekte einer Digitalisierung der Selbstvermessung By Budzinski, Oliver; Schneider, Sonja
  12. Access to new data sources for statistics: Business models and incentives for the corporate sector By Thilo Klein; Stefaan Verhulst
  13. Clustering Big Data by Extreme Kurtosis Projections By Rendon Aguirre, Janeth Carolina; Prieto Fernández, Francisco Javier; Peña Sánchez de Rivera, Daniel

  1. By: Udalov, Vladimir (University of Wuppertal); Welfens, Paul J. J. (University of Wuppertal)
    Abstract: The environmental concern of people in industrialized and developing countries is analysed. Using the 2010-2014 wave of the World Value Survey (WVS), the main purpose of our analysis is to investigate the effect of different information sources on the affective, conative and behavioural components of the environmental concern of people in the developed and developing countries. As independent variables we use a set of economic data as well as information-related variables, including the internet, mobile phones, TV, radio and newspapers. The digital variables of the internet and mobile phones turn out to have a highly significant impact on environmental concern so that digital modernization of countries should have pro-environmental impacts as a side-effect of internet and mobile phone services expansion. With the developing countries catching-up vis-à-vis the OECD countries in the field of mobile phone density and internet density, respectively, one may expect better prospects for cooperation between developed and developing countries since attitudes/the environmental concern of people in developed and developing countries will become more similar – an effect that is reinforced through the income variable.
    Keywords: environmental concern, World Value Survey, mass media, information technologies, international economics
    JEL: Q50 D10 C83 D80
    Date: 2017–03
  2. By: Wenz, Alexander
    Abstract: Using data from a non-mobile-optimised survey in the UK, this paper compares the quality of survey data from mobile devices with different screen size. The findings suggest that data quality mainly differs between small smartphones with a diagonal screen size of below four inches and larger mobile devices. Users of small smartphones are significantly more likely to drop out of the survey, to provide shorter responses to open-ended questions, and to straight-line in grid questions. There are no significant differences between screen size groups in completion times, response distributions, and number of items selected in check-all-that-apply questions.
    Date: 2017–04–26
  3. By: Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT) has changed in depth the organization of the generation of knowledge reducing significantly knowledge absorption cost and improving knowledge interactions. The digital generation of knowledge relies on the systematic access and use of the stock of quasi-public knowledge. ICT enable to reconsider the knowledge appropriability trade-off as it helps to better appreciate the positive role of knowledge spillovers in the recombinant generation of new knowledge, next to the well-known negative effects of the limited appropriability of knowledge on revenues and hence incentives to innovate. This new analytical framework calls for an augmented role of telecommunications policy that should take into account the positive effects of knowledge connectivity on the generation of knowledge.
    Date: 2017–03
  4. By: Martin, Roman (University of Gothenburg); Wiig Aslesen, Heidi (BI Norwegian Business School); Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Herstad, Sverre (Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The literature on regional innovation systems emphasizes the role of the region as locus for interactive learning and knowledge exchange, stressing the importance of (geographical) proximity for innovation (Asheim and Gertler 2005). Even though the importance of extra-regional knowledge is widely acknowledged (Trippl et al. 2015), there has been only little emphasis on the particular role and the nature of global knowledge flows. The aim of this chapter is to explore the differentiated nature of global knowledge flows in regional innovation systems. We provide an overview of the different ways firms can gain access to global knowledge sources. Identified knowledge sourcing channels include international R&D collaborations, foreign direct investments, personally embedded relationships, international mobility of skilled labour, virtual communities and online platforms, and the participation in temporary clusters such as fairs, exhibitions, and conferences (Maskell et al. 2006, Aslesen and Sardo 2016). Depending on regional innovation system preconditions, firms use and combine different knowledge sourcing channels to access global knowledge. Firms in organisationally thick and diversified regional innovation systems have a geographical advantage in accessing knowledge globally, but even firms in peripheral areas can exchange knowledge worldwide, due to improved means of transport and communication at distance. Furthermore, not only multinational companies that are dominated by analytical or synthetic knowledge bases, but even small and medium sized enterprises in symbolic industries are often deeply involved in global knowledge sourcing activities. We illustrate our arguments with interview data collected among New Media firms in southern Sweden and in the Oslo Region in Norway.
    Keywords: regional innovation systems; globalisation of innovation; knowledge sourcing; new media
    JEL: L82 L86 O19 O33
    Date: 2017–04–27
  5. By: Rieger, Christoph
    Abstract: Mobile devices have become ubiquitous not only in the consumer domain but also support the digitalization of business operations though business apps. Many frameworks for programming cross-platform apps have been proposed, but only few modeling approaches exist that focus on platform-agnostic representations of mobile apps. In addition, app development activities are almost exclusively performed by software developers, while domain experts are rarely involved in the actual app creation beyond requirements engineering phases. This work concentrates on a model-driven approach to app development that is also comprehensible to non-technical users. With the help of a graphical domain-specific language, data model, view representation, business logic, and user interactions are modeled in a common model from a process perspective. To enable such an approach from a technical point of view, an inference mechanism is presented that merges multiple partial data models into a global specification. Through model transformations, native business apps can then be generated for multiple platforms without manual programming.
    Keywords: Graphical DSL,Mobile Application,Business App,Model-driven software development,Data model inference
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Matthew Gentzkow; Bryan T. Kelly; Matt Taddy
    Abstract: An ever increasing share of human interaction, communication, and culture is recorded as digital text. We provide an introduction to the use of text as an input to economic research. We discuss the features that make text different from other forms of data, offer a practical overview of relevant statistical methods, and survey a variety of applications.
    JEL: C1
    Date: 2017–03
  7. By: Trautmann, Heike; Vossen, Gottfried; Homann, Leschek; Carnein, Matthias; Kraume, Karsten
    Abstract: Data Management and Data Analytics are of huge importance to Business Process Outsourcing Providers in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in order to offer tailor-made CRM Solutions to their business clients during presales, sales and aftersales. These solutions support business clients to improve their internal processes, as well as their customer service in a variety of communication channels (including e-mail, chat, social media, private messages, etc.) to reach out to end customers in an efficient way. As customer interactions may happen via various channels basically at any time, a crucial challenge is to efficiently store and integrate the data of the various channels in order to obtain a unified customer profile. This paper abstracts from the underlying platforms and instead considers the requirements to CRM solutions for the various communication channels, in order to devise a uniform and corporate-wide data architecture for an omni-channel customer view to maximize the business clients' value in customer retention and customer centric analytics. Especially, online customer segmentation integrating channel usage and preferences is presented as a very promising means for constructing a self-energising information loop which will lead to highly improved customer service along the whole customer journey.
    Keywords: Omni-Channel CRM,Big Data,Customer Segmentation,Data Architecture
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Olivier Scaillet; Adrien Treccani; Christopher Trevisan
    Abstract: We use the database leak of Mt. Gox exchange to analyze the dynamics of the price of bitcoin from June 2011 to November 2013. This gives us a rare opportunity to study an emerging retail-focused, highly speculative and unregulated market with trader identifiers at a tick transaction level. Jumps are frequent events and they cluster in time. The order flow imbalance and the preponderance of aggressive traders, as well as a widening of the bid-ask spread predict them. Jumps have short-term positive impact on market activity and illiquidity and see a persistent change in the price.
    Date: 2017–04
  9. By: Vrabie, Catalin I.; Tirziu, Andreea-Maria
    Abstract: A main feature of smart cities is the use of ICT in all aspects of city life. In this regard, eparticipation is a core element in the process of developing communities “ruled” by socially inclusive governance. Objectives: This paper aims to present a framework on how e-participation can be inclusive and how it might bring citizens closer to the idea of living in a smart city, by giving European reality examples regarding this concept. Prior Work: It shows the literature that concentrates on e-participation, focusing on citizens’ needs and requirements. Approach: The main methods employed for this research were some case studies on European examples of e-participation. Results: This type of participatory relationship is starting to transform all public institutions, changing their culture – from one control-based to one performancecentered. ICT is starting to play an important role in smart cities’ evolution and it brings an improvement in the government-citizens relationship. Value: We have identified that although technology is a main eparticipation element, there should also be considered the capability and willingness of citizens and public institutions to collaborate, not only by electronic means, but also through traditional ways of participating in the process of taking decisions.
    Keywords: e-participation; smart cities; inclusive relationship; public sector; technological development
    JEL: R00
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Morgane Laouénan (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Roland Rathelot (University of Warwick [Coventry])
    Abstract: We use data from an online marketplace of vacation rentals (Airbnb) collected in 19 major cities in North America and Europe to measure discrimination against ethnicminority hosts. This market has three interesting features: the existence of a detailed reviewing system, the high frequency of transactions and the panel dimension of the data. Using the fact that ratings provide potential guests with information about the quality of a listing, we build a credible measure of statistical discrimination, following a strategy a la Altonji and Pierret (2001). Hosts from a minority ethnic group charge 16% less than other hosts in the same cities. Controlling for a rich set of characteristics reduces the ethnic price gap to 3.2%. An additional review increases the daily price more for minority than for majority hosts. Estimating the parameters of a theoretical pricing model, we find that statistical discrimination accounts for most of the price differential: 2.5 percentage points.
    Keywords: ethnic discrimination, statistical discrimination, rental market
    Date: 2017–04–26
  11. By: Budzinski, Oliver; Schneider, Sonja
    Abstract: Smart Fitness bezeichnet die digitale Erfassung individualisierter Fitness- und Lifestyledaten mit Hilfe von Wearables, Smartwatches, Apps und anderen Instrumenten. Die so generierten Daten sind für eine Reihe von Akteure wie Sportartikelhersteller, Pharmaunternehmen, Arbeitgeber sowie insbesondere auch Krankenversicherungen ökonomisch interessant. Wegen der hohen Aktualität sowohl des gesellschaftlichen Trends zur Selbstvermessung und -optimierung als auch der Verwendung personalisierter Daten im Zuge der Digitalisierung handelt es sich um ein dynamisch wachsendes und sich entwickelndes Gebiet, welches aber bisher kaum aus einer ökonomischen Perspektive untersucht wurde. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wenden wir die ökonomische Theorie personalisierter Daten auf das Phänomen Smart Fitness an und leiten mögliche Effekte her, insbesondere auch für die Konsumentenwohlfahrt. Außerdem präsentieren wir eine nicht-repräsentative empirische Studie, welche einen ersten Einblick ermöglicht und dabei helfen kann, die empirisch relevanten Theorierichtungen zu identifizieren. Dabei stellen wir Bereiche heraus, in denen eher positive Wohlfahrtswirkungen zu erwarten sind, aber betonen auch solche, wo Wohlfahrtsgefahren lauern und daher Regulierungsrechtfertigungen bestehen. Letzteres gilt insbesondere, wenn personalisierte Fitness- und Lebensstildaten für die Individualisierung von Krankenversicherungstarifen oder Karriereentscheidungen durch Arbeitgeber verwendet werden.
    Keywords: smart fitness,wearables,smartwatches,Ökonomik personalisierter Daten,economics of privacy,big data,Digitalisierung,Selbstvermessung,Sportökonomik,Medienökonomik,Gesundheitsökonomik,Fitnessarmband
    JEL: L83 Z20 D03 I10 L82
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Thilo Klein; Stefaan Verhulst (The GovLab)
    Abstract: New data sources, commonly referred to as “Big Data”, have attracted growing interest from National Statistical Institutes. They have the potential to complement official and more conventional statistics used, for instance, to determine progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and other targets. However, it is often assumed that this type of data is readily available, which is not necessarily the case. This paper examines legal requirements and business incentives to obtain agreement on private data access, and more generally ways to facilitate the use of Big Data for statistical purposes. Using practical cases, the paper analyses the suitability of five generic data access models for different data sources and data uses in an emerging new data ecosystem. Concrete recommendations for policy action are presented in the conclusions.
    Keywords: Big Data, business model, data ecosystem, official statistics, public-private partnership (PPP)
    JEL: C55 C81 C82
    Date: 2017–05–05
  13. By: Rendon Aguirre, Janeth Carolina; Prieto Fernández, Francisco Javier; Peña Sánchez de Rivera, Daniel
    Abstract: Clustering Big Data is an important problem because large samples of many variables are usually heterogeneous and include mixtures of several populations. It often happens that only some of a large set of variables are useful for clustering and working with all of them would be very inefficient and may make more difficult the identification of the clusters. Thus, searching for spaces of lower dimension that include all the relevant information about the clusters seems a sensible way to proceed in these situations. Peña and Prieto (2001) showed that the extreme kurtosis directions of projected data are optimal when the data has been generated by mixtures of two normal distributions. We generalize this result for any number of mixtures and show that the extreme kurtosis directions of the projected data are linear combinations of the optimal discriminant directions if we knew the centers of the components of the mixture. In order to separate the groups we want directions that split the data into two groups, each corresponding to different components of the mixture. We prove that these directions can be found from extreme kurtosis projections. This result suggests a new procedure to deal with many groups, working in a binary decision way and deciding at each step if the data should be split into two groups or we should stop. The decision is based on comparing a single distribution with a mixture of two distribution. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed through a simulation study.
    Keywords: Mixture models; Projection Pursuit; High dimension
    Date: 2017–04–27

This nep-pay issue is ©2017 by Bernardo Bátiz-Lazo. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.